POINT BY POINT OUTLINE
Prepared by Kollel Iyun Hadaf
1) THE "KEDUSHAH" OF "BATEI KENESIYOS" AND "BATEI MEDRASHOS"
(a) (Rav Papi citing Rava): One may convert a Beis ha'Keneses
into a Beis Medrash, but not vice-versa.
(b) (Rav Papa): Rava said just the contrary!
(c) (Rav Acha): Presumably, Rav Papi is correct, for R.
Yehoshua ben Levi permits to convert a Beis ha'Keneses
into a Beis Medrash.
(d) (Bar Kapara): (Nevuzaradan burned) "Beis Hash-m" - the
Beis ha'Mikdash; "Beis ha'Melech" - the king's palace;
"v'Es Kol Batei Yerushalayim" - all house of
(e) (R. Yehoshua ben Levi or R. Yochanan): "V'Es Kol Beis
Gadol" refers to where we cultivate Torah (a Beis
Medrash) - "Yagdil Torah v'Yadir";
(f) (The other of R. Yehoshua ben Levi and R. Yochanan): It
refers to where we cultivate Tefilah (a Beis ha'Keneses)
- "Ha'Gedolos Asher Osah Elisha";
1. Elisha performed his wonders through prayer.
(g) Conclusion: Since R. Yehoshua ben Levi permits to convert
a Beis ha'Keneses into a Beis Medrash, he must hold that
it is a Beis Medrash.
2) MAY WE TRANSFER TO THE SAME "KEDUSHAH"?
(a) Question: May we sell an old Sefer Torah to buy a new
1. Since we do not raise the Kedushah, it is forbidden;
(b) Answer #1: The Mishnah forbids to sell a Sefer Torah to
buy Seforim. This implies that we may sell it to buy a
2. Or perhaps, since there is no higher Kedushah, it is
(c) Rejection: That is b'Di'eved (if it was already sold).
The question is whether or not we may sell l'Chatchilah.
(d) Answer #2 (Beraisa): We may wrap a Sefer Torah with
covers of Chumashim, and we may wrap Chumashim with
covers of Nevi'im or Kesuvim. We may not wrap Nevi'im or
Kesuvim with covers of Chumashim, nor Chumashim with
covers of a Sefer Torah.
1. The Reisha implies that we may not wrap a Sefer
Torah with the cover of a different Sefer Torah.
(e) Rejection: The Seifa implies that we may!
(f) Conclusion: The inferences contradict one another. We
cannot resolve our question from this Beraisa.
(g) Answer #3 (Beraisa): We may put a Sefer Torah on a Sefer
Torah or on Chumashim (the same or a lower Kedushah); we
may not put a Sefer on a Sefer of higher Kedushah.
1. Just like we may put one Sefer Torah on another, so
too we may sell one to buy another.
(h) Rejection: We cannot learn from there, for when Seforim
are written together in one parchment, perforce Seforim
rest on Seforim. Therefore we always allow Seforim to
rest on Seforim!
(i) Answer #4: Rabah bar bar Chanah forbids to sell an old
Sefer Torah to buy a new one.
(j) Rejection: There, the concern is that he will neglect to
buy a new one. Our question is when the new one is ready
(to be sold, and he needs only to give the money).
(k) Answer #5: R. Yochanan permits to sell a Sefer Torah only
to learn Torah or to marry a woman. This shows that one
may sell Torah for Torah.
(l) Rejection: Perhaps one may sell for Talmud Torah or to
get married (and fulfill Peru u'Revu), because learning
brings to fulfilling Mitzvos, and "(The world) was
created to be settled (with people)", but one may not
sell to buy a Sefer Torah. (The question is left
(m) (Beraisa): One may not sell a Sefer Torah even though he
doesn't need it;
(n) R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, even if one lacks what to eat
and sells a Sefer Torah or his daughter (to be a slave),
he will see no Berachah from the money!
3) LEFTOVER MONEY
(a) (Mishnah): The same applies to excess money (it may not
be used for a lower Kedushah).
(b) (Rava): This refers to excess money from a sale, but if
they collected money (to buy something Kodesh), the extra
money has no restrictions.
(c) Question (Abaye - Beraisa): If a condition was made, the
extra money can even be used for a Duchsusya (this will
1. This cannot discuss a sale, for a condition would
(d) Answer: Really, it was a sale. If the seven overseers of
the city made a condition, the extra money may be used
2. It must discuss a collection. This shows that
without a condition, the extra money has Kedushah!
(e) Abaye (to a Chacham who used to recite Mishnayos in front
of Rav Sheshes): Did you hear Rav Sheshes explain what is
(f) The Chacham: He said that it is a horseman to run errands
for the city.
(g) Abaye: If a Talmid does not understand what he heard, he
should ask one who is frequently by Chachamim, for
surely he heard the explanation from a great Chacham.
(h) (R. Yochanan, and a Beraisa): If people of a city went to
a different city, and they imposed on them to give an
amount to Tzedakah, they must give. When they return,
they take back (from the Tzedakah collectors) the money
and give it to the poor of their city.
(i) (Beraisa): An individual does not take back his Tzedakah.
It goes to the poor of the city he went to. (Me'iri -
some say that less than 10 is considered an individual.)
(j) Rav Huna declared a Ta'anis. People of Rav Chana bar
Chanilai's city came. Tzedakah was imposed on them, and
they gave. When they were leaving, they wanted to take
the money to the poor of their city.
(k) Rav Huna refused;
1. (Beraisa): This (they take back their Tzedakah) is
when there is no Chacham appointed over the communal
needs. When there is a Chacham, all is done as he
2. All the more so here Rav Huna decides, because the
poor of both cities rely on him!
4) SELLING A "BEIS HA'KENESES
"(a) (Mishnah - R. Meir): We may not sell a public Beis ha'Keneses
to an individual, since this lessens its Kedushah;
(b) Chachamim: It is permitted. If it was forbidden, one
could not sell even from a large city to a small city!
(c) (Gemara - Question): How does R. Meir answer the
(d) Answer: He says that a Beis ha'Keneses of a small city
also has Kedushah, but that of an individual does not;
(e) Chachamim say, if we are concerned for the decrease in
Kedushah, we should also be concerned from a big city to
a small city.
(f) (Mishnah - R. Meir): We may sell a Beis ha'Keneses only
on condition that it can be bought back;
(g) Chachamim say, it may be sold permanently, except for 4
things, i.e. to be a bathhouse, tannery, Mikveh, or Beis
ha'Mayim (laundry, or a place to urinate).
(h) R. Yehudah says, we sell it to be a courtyard. The buyer
then does like he wants.
(i) (Gemara - Question): According to R. Meir, there is a
problem of usury (if it is bought back, the buyer lived
there without paying rent. This is interest on his
(j) Answer #1 (R. Yochanan): R. Meir holds like R. Yehudah,
who permits a sale that might result in usury:
1. (Beraisa): If Reuven sold his field to his creditor
(k) Rejection (Rava): No, all forbid a sale that might result
i. It is permitted only if Reuven eats the fruits,
but not if Shimon eats them;
2. They argue about whether a sale that might result in
usury is allowed.
ii. R. Yehudah says that Shimon may eat the fruits;
R. Elazar ben Azaryah sanctioned such a sale.
iii. Chachamim: No, the case was, Reuven ate the
(l) Answer #2 (Rava): They argue about whether we permit such
a sale on condition to return the interest if the field
will be bought back. (R. Meir holds like R. Yehudah, who
(m) (Rav Yehudah): One may urinate within four Amos of where
(n) Objection (Rav Yosef): We already know this from the
Mishnah! R. Yehudah permits one who buys a Beis
ha'Keneses to do as he pleases, and Chachamim forbid
making it a Beis ha'Mayim only because it used to be a
fixed place of prayer!
1. Inference: All permit to urinate four Amos away from
a place of prayer that was not fixed.
(o) (A reciter of Beraisos): One who prayed must distance
four Amos before urinating. One who urinated must
distance four Amos before praying.
(p) (Rav Nachman): Granted, the Seifa is like a Mishnah;
1. (Mishnah): One may not pray within four Amos of
urine or excrement.
(q) Objection (Rav Nachman): Why must one distance four Amos
from a place of prayer? If so, one may not urinate in any
street of our city (travelers have prayed)!
(r) Correction: Rather, the (entire) Beraisa discusses
waiting the time needed to walk four Amos.
(s) Question: We understand the Seifa; one waits to ensure
that all drops are absorbed (in his garment - Ran) before
1. But why must one wait after praying before
(t) Answer (Rav Ashi): The words of prayer are still on his
lips for this period of time.
5) ATTRIBUTES OF "CHACHAMIM"
(a) R. Zakai attributed his long life to the following
1. He never urinated within four Amos of praying; he
never made a nickname for someone; he never missed
making Kidush on wine.
(b) (Beraisa): When she died, she left him 300 barrels of
wine. When he died, he left 3000 to his children.
2. Once, his mother sold her kerchief to buy for him
wine for Kidush.
(c) Rav Huna gave his belt for a security to obtain wine for
1. When Rav heard this, he blessed him that he should
be covered with silk.
(d) R. Elazar ben Shamu'a attributed his long life to these
2. This was fulfilled. Rav was upset that at the time
Rav Huna had not returned the Berachah.
1. He never used a Beis ha'Keneses to be a shortcut; he
never appeared to walk on the heads of Talmidim; he
never said Birkas Kohanim without blessing first.
Index to Outlines for Maseches Megilah