POINT BY POINT OUTLINE
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
1) "DIVREI" "TORAH" SAID IN A "CHACHAM'S" NAME
(a) Question: Why was R. Yochanan so upset?
(b) Answer: This is like Rav Yehudah taught:
1. Question: "I will dwell in your tent Olamim
(plural)" - can a person dwell in two worlds?!
2. Answer: David requested of Hash-m that people should
say teachings in his name in this world;
i. (R. Yochanan): When people in this world recite
teachings of a dead Chacham, his lips move in
ii. (R. Yitzchak ben Ze'iri): He learns from "Your
palate is like good wine. It agitates the lips
of the sleeping as a pile of grapes";
iii. When you put your finger on a pile of grapes,
it moves. Likewise, when people say teachings
of Chachamim in their names in this world,
their lips move in the grave.
2) THE AGE OF ADULTHOOD
(a) (Mishnah): A nine-year old is like (a 20-year old who did
not bring hairs).
(b) Contradiction (Mishnah): If a 20-year old man did not
bring two hairs, they bring a proof that he is 20 and he
is a Seris. He does not do Chalitzah or Yibum;
1. If a 20-year old woman did not bring two hairs, they
bring a proof that she is 20 and she is an Ailonis.
She does not do Chalitzah or Yibum.
(c) Answer: Rav said that the Mishnah discusses when he
brought Simanim of a Seris.
(d) Support (Rava): The Mishnah says '...v'Hu (and that) he
is a Seris'.
(e) Question: If he does not have Simanei Seris, when does he
become an adult?
(f) (Tana d'Vei R. Chiya): He is an adult after (35,) the
majority of his (expected) years.
(g) When one who had not brought hairs would come before
Rava, if he was weak, he would tell them to make him
healthy. If he was well fed, he would tell them to thin
1. Sometimes pubic hairs fall off due of weakness, and
sometimes due to obesity.
***PEREK NOS'IN AL HA'ANUSAH***
3) ONLY KIDUSHIN FORBIDS RELATIVES
(a) (Mishnah): One may marry the relatives (mother,
grandmother, daughter, granddaughter and sister) of a
woman he raped or enticed. One who rapes or entices the
relative of his wife is Chayav (Kares);
(b) A man may marry a woman raped or enticed by his father or
(c) R. Yehudah forbids a woman raped or enticed by his
(d) (Gemara): Our Mishnah teaches like the following Beraisa:
1. (Beraisa): If a man raped a woman, he may marry her
daughter. If he married a woman, he may not marry
(e) Contradiction (Beraisa): One who is suspected of Bi'ah
with a woman is forbidden to her mother, daughter and
(f) Answer #1: It is forbidden only mid'Rabanan.
(g) Objection: If it is forbidden mid'Rabanan, would the Tana
say 'one may marry (l'Chatchilah)'?!
(h) Answer #2: Our Mishnah discusses after the woman he was
suspected of died. Then it is permitted even mid'Rabanan.
(i) Question: What is the source that a man may marry the
relatives of a woman he raped or enticed?
(j) Answer #1 (Beraisa): Regarding all other Arayos it says
'Shechivah (lying)'. Regarding the forbidden relatives of
one's wife, it says 'Kichah', to teach that the Isur
applies only through marriage.
(k) Question (Rav Papa): Regarding one's sister, it says
"That will take his sister...". Is the Isur only through
marriage, but Bi'ah without Kidushin is permitted?!
(l) Answer (Abaye): The Torah says 'Kichah' without
specifying. When it can apply to Kidushin, it does. When
it can apply (only) to Bi'ah, it means Bi'ah.
(m) Answer #2 (to Question (i) - Rava) Question: "Do not
reveal the Ervah of the daughter of your son or
daughter" implies that granddaughters (that are not
yours) from her (the mother of your children) are
1. Contradiction: It also says "do not reveal the Ervah
of a woman and her daughter; do not take the
daughter of her son or daughter"!
(n) (Mishnah - R. Yehudah): One is forbidden to a woman whom
his father raped.
2. Resolution (Rava): The first verse refers to
children through rape. The second verse applies to
children through marriage.
3. Suggestion: Perhaps it is the opposite!
4. Rejection: Regarding Arayos it says "She'er (kin)".
This is through marriage, not through rape.
(o) (Rav Gidal): R. Yehudah learns from "A man...will not
reveal the Kenaf of his father" - one may not have Bi'ah
with a woman who had Bi'ah with his father.
(p) Question: How do we know that this refers to a woman whom
the father raped?
(q) Answer: We learn from the previous passage, "The man that
lied with (raped) her ..."
1. Chachamim: If this were immediately before it, we
would agree. Since they are not adjacent, we expound
the verse like Rav Anan:
i. (Rav Anan): The verse refers to the Shomeres
Yavam of his father. "Kenaf Aviv" is someone
fit for his father (to do Yibum with).
2. Question: She is already forbidden to the son. It is
his uncle's wife!
3. Answer: The verse adds a second Lav for Bi'ah with
4. Question: She is already forbidden twice, for she is
a Shomeres Yavam!
5. Answer #1: The verse adds a third Lav.
6. Answer #2: After all the Yevamim die there is no
Isur of a Shomeres Yavam, so this verse adds a
(a) Riddle #1: 'He is a paternal, but not a maternal,
brother, and he is my mother's husband, and I am the
daughter of his wife.' (How can this arise?)
(b) Answer (Rami bar Chama): This is unlike R. Yehudah (who
forbids a man to marry a woman his father raped. The girl
speaking was born out of wedlock; her paternal brother
married her mother).
(c) Riddle #2: 'He is my brother, and my son; I am the sister
of the one I carry on my shoulder'.
(d) Answer: The case is, a Nochri had Bi'ah with his
daughter. (We prefer not to say that a Yisrael did so.)
(e) Riddle #3: 'Shalom to you, my son; I am the daughter of
(f) Answer: The case is, a Nochri had Bi'ah with his
(g) Riddle #4 (asked to water carriers): 'The one I carry is
my son, and I am the daughter of his brother.'
(h) The case is, a Nochri had Bi'ah with his son's daughter.
(i) Riddle #5: 'Alas, my brother is my father, my husband,
the son of my husband and the husband of my mother, and I
am the daughter of his wife, and he does not give bread
to his brethren, the orphaned children of his daughter.
(j) The case is, a Nochri Ploni fathered a girl Plonis
through his mother, and later married Plonis, and Ploni's
father Almoni fathered children
through Plonis. (Ploni married Plonis, who is his
daughter and sister. Almoni died, and Ploni refused to
feed Almoni's children through Plonis, who are Ploni's
grandchildren and also his brothers.)
(k) Riddle #6: 'I and you are brothers; I and your father are
brothers; I and your mother are brothers.
(l) Answer: The case is, a Nochri fathered two girls from his
mother, and then fathered a son from one of his
daughters. The son's mother's sister says the above to
(m) Riddle #7: 'We are siblings; I and your father are
siblings; I and your mother are first cousins.'
(n) Answer: This can arise in a permitted way! Reuven, Shimon
and Levi are brothers. Reuven has two daughters; Shimon
married one of them and Levi's son married the other.
Shimon's son says thusly to the son of Levi's son.
5) ARE CONVERTED RELATIVES PERMITTED TO EACH OTHER?
(a) (Mishnah): If a woman's sons converted with her, the sons
do not do Yibum or Chalitzah to each other's wives. This
is even if the first son was conceived before conversion
and born after conversion, and the second was conceived
and born after conversion;
(b) The same applies to a slave whose sons were freed with
(c) (Gemara): The children of the slave Yudan were freed. Rav
Acha bar Yakov permitted them to marry each other's
(d) Objection (Rava): Rav Sheshes forbade this!
1. Rav Acha bar Yakov: He forbade, and I permit!
(e) Version #1: If they are paternal but not maternal
brothers, all agree that they are permitted;
(f) If they are maternal but not paternal brothers, all agree
that they are forbidden;
(g) They argue about brothers from the mother and father.
1. Rav Acha bar Yakov permits, since people view them
as paternal brothers. They call them the sons of
(h) Version #2: Rav Acha bar Yakov permits in all cases, even
when they are only maternal brothers.
2. Rav Sheshes forbids, for people also call them the
sons of Plonis (their mother).
(i) Question: What is the reason?
(j) Answer: A convert is like a newborn baby.
(k) Question (Mishnah): A woman whose sons converted with her
do not do Yibum or Chalitzah to each other's wives.
1. Suggestion: They do not do Yibum because it is
(l) Answer: No, it is because Chalitzah and Yibum do not
apply. Their widows are free to marry strangers, or the
(m) Objection (Mishnah): Even if the first son was conceived
1. Version #1: We understand if each man is forbidden
to his brother's wife. The Mishnah teaches that even
if the first was conceived before conversion and
born after conversion, and the second was conceived
after conversion', and it is as if they have
different mothers, still they are forbidden;
(n) Answer: Even though both were born after conversion, and
people might confuse them with Yisraelim, we permit them
to each other's wives.
2. But if each man is permitted to his brother's wife,
why does it say even'?
1. Version #2: We understand if each man is permitted
to his brother's wife. The Mishnah teaches that even
though both were born after conversion, and people
might confuse them with Yisraelim, still we permit
them to each other's wives;
(o) Answer: Even though the first son was conceived before
conversion and born after conversion, and the second was
conceived after conversion, and it is as if they have
different mothers, still they are forbidden.
2. But if each man is forbidden to his brother's wife,
why does it say 'even'?
(p) Question (Beraisa): If two twins converted or were freed,
they do not do Chalitzah or Yibum to each other's wives,
and they are not liable for marrying each other's wife;
1. If they were conceived before conversion and born
after conversion, they do not do Chalitzah or Yibum
but they are liable for marrying each other's wife;
(q) Answer: Really, it is permitted. Since the Seifa says
that they are liable, the Reisha says that they are not
liable, for parallel structure.
2. If they were conceived and born after conversion,
they are like Yisraelim in all respects.
3. Suggestion: The Reisha teaches that they are not
liable for marrying each other's wives. This implies
that they are not liable, but it is forbidden!
Index to Outlines for Maseches Yevamos