BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
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prepared by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
[2a - 38 lines; 2b - 29 lines]
1) [line 2] כהן גדול KOHEN GADOL - Only the Kohen Gadol (the high priest) is allowed to perform the special Yom Kipur service in the Beis ha'Mikdash.
2) [line 3] לשכת פרהדרין LISHKAS PARHEDRIN - This room is set aside for the Kohen Gadol's daily use. Our Mishnah tells us that he lived in this room for the seven days before Yom ha'Kipurim. This room became known as "Lishkas Parhedrin" from the time that the office of Kohen Gadol was sold to the highest bidder. Since the Kohanim who purchased the position were not worthy of it, they invariably died within one year of their appointment. "Parhedrin" is the title of certain assessors who were appointed by the government on a yearly basis.
3) [line 3] מתקינין MESAKNIN - designated
4) [line 4] יארע בו פסול YE'ERA BO PESUL - an invalidation [such as Tum'as Keri (see ) or any other Tum'ah] may befall him
5) [line 7] אין לדבר סוף EIN L'DAVAR SOF - there is no end to what we must take precautions to avoid [and another woman would therefore have to be designated in case the first understudy should die, and so on and so forth]
6) [line 8] שריפת הפרה SEREIFAS HA'PARAH (PARAH ADUMAH)
(a) A Parah Adumah is a red cow; if there are as many as two hairs of any other color it is not a Parah Adumah (see Maseches Parah 2:5). Only a cow which has never had a yoke placed upon it nor performed any other work is fit to be used as a Parah Adumah. A place is prepared for its slaughter on Har ha'Zeisim (also known as Har ha'Mishchah; "Mishchah" means oil), opposite the gate to the Azarah (the courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). After it is slaughtered, its blood is sprinkled in the direction of the Beis ha'Mikdash seven times. Its carcass is then burned. A cedar branch, some Ezov branches and a piece of crimson wool are thrown into the carcass of the cow as it is burning (Bamidbar 19:1-22).
(b) If a person or utensil becomes Tamei by touching a Mes or being in the same room as a Mes (or a part of a Mes which is Metamei b'Ohel), he/it must wait seven days before he/it is able to go to the Mikvah in order to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days, Mei Chatas is sprinkled on the person or utensil. Mei Chatas is a mixture of ashes of a Parah Adumah and spring water. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov (hyssop) branches which have been bound together into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person or utensil which is Tamei. After this process is complete, the person or utensil is immersed in a Mikvah. Once night falls, the purification process is complete (Bamidbar 19:17-19).
7) [line 10] שעל פני הבירה SHE'AL PNEI HA'BIRAH - which was in the Beis ha'Mikdash (see Gemara below, line 24)
8a) [line 13] כלי גללים KLEI GELALIM - utensils fashioned from cattle dung (RASHI throughout Shas; Rashi to Shabbos 16b, however, appears to translate Gelalim as marble, and RABEINU ELYAKIM here mentions both explanations; see )
b) [line 13] כלי אבנים KLEI AVANIM - utensils fashioned from stone
c) [line 13] כלי אדמה KLEI ADAMAH - unbaked clay utensils
9) [line 14] טבול יום TEVUL YOM
(a) A Tevul Yom is a person or vessel that has immersed in a Mikvah, but requires night to fall before becoming completely Tahor. The Tum'ah level of a Tevul Yom is minimal; he or it is only considered a Sheni l'Tum'ah. This means that if he or it touches Terumah or Kodesh, the Terumah or Kodesh become Pasul and must be burned. Chulin that he or it touches does not become Tamei at all.
10) [line 16] להוציא מלבן L'HOTZI MI'LIBAN - lit. to remove from the hearts of; i.e., to demonstrate that we do not agree with the opinion of
11) [line 16] צדוקין TZEDUKIN (TZEDUKI/BAITUSI)
(a) The Tzedukim were students of Tzadok, and the Beitusim were students of Beitus. Both of these individuals rejected the Oral Torah (Avos d'Rebbi Nasan 5:2).
12) [line 17] מעורבי השמש ME'URAVEI HA'SHEMESH - those who [were Tamei, went to the Mikvah, and then] waited for nightfall (see above, entry #9)
13) [line 19] טומאה TUM'AH (TUM'AS KEILIM)
(a) All objects belong to one of three categories:
1. Sources of Tum'ah
2. Objects that can become Tamei
3. Objects that cannot become Tamei
(b) A source of Tum'ah is called an Av ha'Tum'ah. The exception to this is a corpse, which is referred to as the "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah," due to the fact that it can generate more Tum'ah than any other object. When an object becomes Tamei from coming into contact with an object which is Tamei, that object does not receive the same Tum'ah as that of the first object, but rather a level of Tum'ah one degree weaker than the first. If an object came into contact with an Av ha'Tum'ah, it is called a Rishon l'Tum'ah, or Vlad ha'Tum'ah. Tum'ah received from a Rishon creates a Sheni l'Tum'ah, and that from a Sheni creates a Shelishi (in certain cases), etc.
(c) A metal utensils can become an Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah, an Av ha'Tum'ah or a Rishon l'Tum'ah (see ); a person and all utensils other than earthenware can become an Av ha'Tum'ah or Rishon l'Tum'ah (although Chazal decreed that one's hands sometimes become a Sheni l'Tum'ah); Earthenware utensils can only become a Rishon l'Tum'ah; food and liquids which are Chulin can become a Rishon l'Tum'ah or a Sheni l'Tum'ah; Terumah can become a Shelishi l'Tum'ah as well; and Hekdesh can also become a Revi'i l'Tum'ah.
(d) Utensils fashioned from the three materials listed here - dung, stone, or unbaked clay - cannot receive Tum'ah at all.
14) [line 21] חטאת היא CHATAS HI - Although the Parah Adumah is not a Korban, the Torah refers to it with the words, "Chat'as Hi" (Bamidbar 19:9). From this Chazal understand that it has certain characteristics of a Korban.
15) [line 21] חטאת CHATAS (KORBAN CHATAS)
(b) A Korban Chat'as consists of a female goat or sheep. It must be slaughtered north of the Mizbe'ach, and it is consumed in the Azarah by Kohanim.
16) [line 22] "[ולקח אלעזר הכהן מדמה בעצבעו, והזה] אל נכח פני אהל מועד [מדמה שבע פעמים.]" "[V'LAKACH ELAZAR HA'KOHEN MI'DAMAH B'ETZBA'O, V'HIZAH] EL NOCHACH PNEI OHEL MO'ED [MI'DAMAH SHEVA PE'AMIM.]" - "[And Elazar the Kohen should take of its blood with his finger, and sprinkle] opposite the face of the Ohel Mo'ed [from its blood seven times]" (Bamidbar 19:4). The Kohen who slaughtered the Parah Adumah stood on Har ha'Mishchah (the Mount of Olives; "Mishchah" means oil), a neighboring mountain to the Beis ha'Mikdash, while doing so. He turned to face the front of the Beis ha'Mikdash, which was its eastern side.
17) [line 24] היכירא HEIKEIRAH - a clear sign [that this was the Parah Adumah, and that great care should be taken while preparing it]
18) [line 27] "הבירה אשר הכינותי" "HA'BIRAH ASHER HACHINOSI" - "The Birah which I prepared" (Divrei ha'Yamim I 29:19). David ha'Melech referred thusly to the Beis ha'Mikdash that his son Shlomo was to build. David had done everything short of the actual construction, including purchasing the property from Aravna ha'Yevusi.
19) [line 27] מנא הני מילי? MINA HANI MILEI? - what is the source [for separating the Kohen Gadol before Yom Kipur, and the Kohen who burns the Parah Adumah before he does so]?
20) [line 29] "כאשר עשה ביום הזה, צוה ה' לעשת לכפר עליכם." "KA'ASHER ASAH BA'YOM HA'ZEH, TZIVAH HASH-M LA'ASOS L'CHAPER ALEICHEM" (SHIV'AS YEMEI HA'MILU'IM)
(a) The first seven days during which the Avodah was performed in the Mishkan were called the "Shiv'as Yemei ha'Milu'im." The word "Milu'im" means "filling," and refers to the fact that during these days the position of Divine servants was finally "filled" by the Kohanim (RASHI to Vayikra 8:22). These seven days began on the 23rd of Adar and lasted until Rosh Chodesh Nisan, which was the eighth day.
(b) During these Yemei ha'Milu'im, the Kohanim as well as the various components and utensils of the Mishkan were anointed with Shemen ha'Mishchah (see ). Many Korbanos, termed Korbanos ha'Milu'im, were offered. Moshe Rabeinu officiated as the Kohen Gadol during this time, demonstrating to Aharon and his sons how the Avodah should be performed. On each of the seven Yemei ha'Milu'im, Moshe assembled and dissembled the Mishkan; on the eighth day, he left it standing. On that day, Aharon was officially appointed as Kohen Gadol and the Shechinah descended to permanently dwell in the Mishkan (RASHI ibid. 9:23).
(c) Bnei Yisrael were commanded to separate themselves from their houses and camp in front of the Ohel Mo'ed for these seven days. Following this, Moshe was commanded, "As you have done on this day, HaSh-m has commanded you to do to atone for yourselves" (Vayikra 8:34).
21) [line 32] לא מתוקם LO MITUKAM - cannot be established
22) [line 33] לאו בת כפרה היא LAV BAS KAPARAH HI - does not atone ("purification" and "atonement" are two different things)
23) [line 5] "[אשר צוה ה' את משה בהר סיני,] ביום צותו את בני ישראל [להקריב את קרבניהם לה' בהר סיני.]" "[ASHER TZIVAH HASH-M ES MOSHE B'HAR SINAI,] B'YOM TZAVOSO ES BNEI YISRAEL [L'HAKRIV ES KORBENEIHEM LA'HASH-M B'HAR SINAI.]" - "[That which HaSh-m commanded Moshe on Har Sinai,] on the day that he commanded Bnei Yisrael [to offer their sacrifices to HaSh-m on Har Sinai]" (Vayikra 7:38).
24) [line 7] ומאי נפקא מינה? U'MAI NAFKA MINAH? - what diffrence does it make [in a Gezeirah Shavah that the words are not identical]?
25) [line 8] זו היא שיבה, זו היא ביאה ZU HI SHIVAH, ZU HI BI'AH
(a) In the Parshah of a house that was put into quarantine due to Tzara'as (see ), the Pasuk (Vayikra 14:39) says "v'Shav ha'Kohen" - "the Kohen shall return" to the house to inspect it seven days after the Tzara'as was first noted. If the Tzara'as has spread, then the infected stones must be removed from the house, and the surrounding plaster scraped off. New stones then replace the old ones, new plaster is applied, and the house is put into quarantine for another week.
(b) In the same Parshah, the Torah states, "u'Va ha'Kohen" - "and the Kohen shall come" back to the house to inspect it a second time. Should the Tzara'as return by the end of this second week, then the entire house is Tamei and must be dismantled. Chazal teach us that this verse is referring to an area affected by Tzara'as that did not spread during its first week. In such a situation, the Kohen "comes back to the house" after a second week to determine whether the affected area has spread, remains as it is, or has disappeared. If it has either spread or remained in place, the Kohen must follow the procedure described above; remove the infected stones, scrape off the surrounding plaster, replace the stones and plaster, and allow a one-week quarantine period.
(c) That this is the intention of the verses is derived from a Gezeirah Shavah between the words "v'Shav" and "u'Va." Although they are not identical, they refer to the same action; namely, the entrance of the Kohen to inspect the house. This Gezeirah Shavah teaches us that just as the house need not be dismantled, even if the Tzara'as spreads during the first week following its discovery, unless the affected area has been removed and the Tzara'as returned to the house following a week of quarantine; so, too, it need not be dismantled, even if the Tzara'as has spread during the second week, unless it has returned to the house following first the removal of the infected area and then a one-week quarantine period.
26) [line 12] כפרה דקרבנות KAPARAH D'KORBANOS - Words containing the root word "Kaper" - "atone" - are often found in reference to private Korbanos (see, for example, Vayikra 1:4).
27) [line 12] הי כהן מתרמי? HAI KOHEN MISRAMI? - which Kohen will end up [offering the Korban]?
28) [line 13] אלמה לא? ALAMAH LO - why not?
29) [line 14] משמרת בית אב MISHMERES BEIS AV (MISHMAROS)
(a) Every family of Kohanim belongs to one of 24 shifts (Mishmaros). Each Mishmar serves in the Mikdash for one week at a time, meaning that each one performs the Avodah for at least two weeks out of the year. The Mishmaros change on Shabbos, when the outgoing Mishmar performs the Avodah in the morning and the incoming Mishmar performs the Avodah in the afternoon.
(b) Every Mishmar is further divided into six Batei Avos. Each Beis Av serves on a different day of the week. On Shabbos, the Kohanim of all of the Batei Avos perform the Avodah together (RASHI Menachos 107b). Some contend that the Mishmaros are divided into seven groups, and only one group serves on Shabbos (RASHI Ta'anis 26a; see ).
(c) On the Shalosh Regalim (the holidays of Pesach, Shavu'os and Sukos) all the Mishmaros Kehunah come to Yerushalayim to fulfill the Mitzvah of Aliyah l'Regel. At those times, Kohanim from any Mishmar are permitted to perform the Avodah of the Regel.
30) [line 16] רגלים REGALIM - [the Korbenos Chat'as offered upon each of the] festivals. In Parshas Pinchas, the Torah tells us that a goat is offered upon each of the festivals "l'Chaper Aleichem."
31) [line 20] אי חג המצות IY CHAG HA'MATZOS - either [it would be referring to] Pesach
32) [line 24] שמיני SHEMINI - Shemini Atzeres, the one-day Yom Tov that follows Sukos
33) [line 27] "הזה" כתיב; כזה "HA'ZEH" KESIV; KA'ZEH - [the word] "ha'Zeh" - "this [day]" - is written [in the verse referring to the Shiv'as Yemei ha'Milu'im (see above, entry #19). From this we learn that that what the Pasuk is referring to must be] similar to the Shiv'as Yemei ha'Milu'im [in that they did not follow a period of days which had Kedushah.]
34) [line 28] טפל דידיה TAFEL DIDEI - that which is secondary to it