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CHALAH PEREK 1

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Rebbi placed Chalah after Ma'aser Sheni, says the Rambam, because after taking all the Ma'asros from the crops, one grinds them into flour, and it is after one has kneaded the flour to form a dough that one becomes Chayav to separate Chalah.

Mishnah 1

1)
(a) The five species of grain that are subject to Chalah are - wheat, barley, spelt, oats and rye.
(b) The source for this is a 'Gezeirah-Shavah' from "Lechem" "Lechem" from Matzah. We learn that the Mitzvah of Matzah is confined to these five species - from the fact that they are the only species which can become Chametz.

2)
(a) When the Tana says that the five species combine with each other to make up the Shi'ur Challah, he means - that the species that are of the same kind combine, but not those that are not.
(b) Consequently - spelt will combine with both wheat and barley, whereas oats and rye will combine only with barley.
(c) According to the Yerushalmi - all the species that are kneaded together will combine with each other (whereas the previous distinction speaks when they are not [see Tiferes Yisrael]).

3)
(a) We learn that the five species are subject to Chadash - from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Lechem" "Lechem" (from Matzah, that we cited earlier), where the Torah writes (in Emor) "ve'Lechem ve'Kali ve'Charmel Lo Sochlu ad Etzem ha'Yom ha'Zeh".
(b) The other prohibition that applies to them simultaneously is - that of cutting them before the Omer (on the second day of Pesach [see Tos. Yom-Tov]).
(c) They will become permitted by the Omer - if they have taken root by then.
(d) Otherwise - they are forbidden until the following Omer (see Tiferes Yisrael, note 6 and note 7).
(e) What do we learn from the Pasuk ...
1. ... (ibid.) "Reishis Ketzirchem" from a 'Gezeirah-Shavah' from "Reishis Arisoseichem" (from Chalah) - that the five species of grain may not be cut before Pesach.
2. ... (in Mishpatim, in connection with Bikurim) "Asher Tizra ba'Sadeh" - that if they have taken root before the Omer has been brought, the Omer permits them.

Mishnah 2

4)
(a) The Mishnah rules that the five species of grain are subject to the Mitzvah of Matzah and the Isur of Chametz. We learn the former - from the latter, since the Torah in Re'ei compares them. Consequently, whatever is subject to the Isur Chametz is also subject to the Mitzvah of Matzah.
(b) The Tana rules that a mixture of Chametz (such as a Babylonian Kutach (a condiment) of Median beer) containing one of the above - is subject to 'bal Yera'eh and bal Yimatzei' (see Tos. Yom-Tov).
(c) According to R. Meir, a Neder not to eat bread or produce incorporates the five species exclusively; whereas a Neder not to eat Dagan (corn) - extends to legumes and seeds (Zera'im), too (see also Tos. Yom-Tov).
(d) Acording to the Chachamim - a Neder not to eat Dagan too, incorporates the five species exclusively.
(e) Besides Ma'asros - Chalah is confined to the five species of grains.

Mishnah 3

5)
(a) Leket, Shikchah, Pe'ah and Hefker (see Tiferes Yisrael) are included in a list of things that are Chayav Chalah - but Patur from Ma'asros. We learn the latter ruling from the Pasuk in Re'ei "u'Ba ha'Levi, ki Ein Lo Cheilek ve'Nachalah Imach" - which teaches us that the obligation to give the Levi Ma'aser is restricted to produce in which the Levi does not have a share (but does not extend to the things in which he does).
(b) The Tana includes in the list ...
1. ... Ma'aser Rishon - whose Terumah has been taken (see Tiferes Yisrael).
2. ... Ma'aser Sheini and Hekdesh - that have been redeemed (see Tos. Yom-Tov and Tiferes Yisrael, note 16)
(c) And it also includes Mosar ha'Omer (see Tos. R. Akiva Eiger) - the flour that remains after the Kohanim had sifted the three Sa'ah of barley flour through thirteen sieves to use for the Korban Omer.
(d) It is Patur from Ma'asros - because at the time of Miru'ach (flattening the pile of grain after winnowing), it belongs to Hekdesh.
(e) It is nevertheless Chayav Chalah - because by the time it is kneaded (the criterion for Chalah), it belongs to the owner.

6)
(a) The final item in the Tana Kama's list is - produce that has not yet grown a third.
(b) We learn from the Pasuk in Re'ei "Tevu'as Zar'echa" - that only produce that will grow again if it is re-sown is subject to Ma'asros, to preclude produce that has not grown a third.
(c) It is nevertheless Chayav Chalah - since it is subject to Chimutz (and therefore falls under the category of bread).
(d) R. Eliezer however learns from the Pasuk "ki'Serumas Goren Kein Tarimu Osah" - that just as it is not subject to Ma'asros, so too, is it not subject to Chalah.
(e) The Halachah is like the Chachamim.

Mishnah 4

7)
(a) The Mishnah lists rice, millet, poppy-seeds (known as Man) and legumes (see Tiferes Yisrael) - which are Chayav Ma'asros but Patur from Chalah ...
(b) ... and the same applies to less than five Reva'im of produce (see Tiferes Yisrael and Tos. Yom-Tov), Sufganin (bread that is made from a dough that is soft like a sponge), Duvshanin (bread that is fried with [or kneaded in] honey [see Tiferes Yisrael]), and Isk'ritin (dough that is extremely soft).
(c) The alternative interpretation of 'Sufganin' is - thin wafer loaves (Matzos), which coincides with the Targum for "Rekikei Matzos".
(d) The last two items listed in the Mishnah are ...
1. ... 'Chalas Hamashreis' - which is Chalah that has been boiled in a pan (see also Tiferes Yisrael).
2. ... 'Meduma' - which is a Sa'ah of Terumah that fell into less than a hundred Sa'ah of Chulin (see Tos, Yom-Tov, Tiferes Yisrael and Tos. R. Akiva Eiger) ...
(e) ... which is Patur from Chalah - because the Torah writes "Tarimu Terumah", and not which still needs to have Terumah taken from it.

Mishnah 5

8)
(a) Sufganim are Patur from Chalah - provided the dough is soft both at the beginning and at the end (see Tiferes Yisrael), but not if it is hard either at the beginning or at the end (see Tos. R. Akiva Eiger).
(b) The definition of ...
1. ... 'Sofah Sufganin' is - a dough that one fried in oil or honey, or one that one boiled in water.
2. ... 'Sofah Isah' - is one that (after being made soft it) is baked in the oven (see Tos. Anshei Shem).
(c) The Tana incorporates K'nuvka'os in the list of things that are Chayav Chalah - bread that one then breaks into crumbs, which one subsequently makes into a dish for small children.

Mishnah 6

9)
(a) Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel argue over a Me'isah - which is flour that is poured into boiling water, and a Chalitah -which is the reverse.
(b) Beis Shamai exempt a Me'isah from Chalah. Beis Hillel rule - that it is Chayav.
(c) According to our Mishnah - they switch their opinions with regard to a Chalitah.
(d) According to the Gemara however, the Mishnah is stating the opinion of two different Tana'im. According to the first Tana, Beis Shamai exempt a Me'isah and a Chalotah too, whereas Beis Hillel obligate both; and according to the second, they reverse their opinions.
(e) The Halachah is - that whatever is baked in an oven is Chayav Chalah, whereas whatever is baled inside a receptacle, and the fire is underneath (like in a pan) is Patur.

10)
(a) The Tana then discusses Chalos Todah and Rekikei Nazir (see Tos. Yom-Tov and Tiferes Yisrael), which are ...
1. ... Patur from Chalah - if the owner prepared them for his own personal use, but ...
2. ... Chayav Chalah - if he prepared them in order to sell in the market ...
(b) ... because the owner has in mind that should he not find purchasers, he will eat them himself (in which case they are Chulin).

Mishnah 7

11)
The Mishnah rules that ...
1. ... if a baker prepares a large yeast to break up and sell to many purchasers - he is Chayav Chalah.
2. ... if a syndicate of women give their individual ingredients to a baker to prepare for them doughs (see Tos. R. Akiva Eiger) - then provided none of them contain a Shi'ur Chalah (see Tos. Chadashim) they are all Patur from Chalah (see Tiferes Yisrael).

Mishnah 8

12)
(a) A dog's dough comprises - flour with a lot of coarse bran mixed in (see Tos R. Akiva Eiger).
(b) It is Chayav Chalah - provided the shepherds intend to partake of it too.
(c) It can then be used - for Eiruvei Chatzeiros, too (see Tos. Yom-Tov and Tiferes Yisrael).
(d) 'u'Mishtatfin Bah' means - that It can be used for Shitufei Mavo'os (which combines the courtyards of one Mavoy, in the same way as the Chatzer combines all the houses that surround it.

13)
(a) One also recites 'Hamotzi' over it - and 'Mezuman' too (if three people ate together).
(b) Besides permitting its baking on Yom-Tov - the Tana finally renders Isas ha'Kelavim from which the shepherds partake too, Kasher for Matzos for the Seder (Lechem Oni).
(c) If the shepherds do not intend to partake of it - then it is not considered bread in all the above regards (see Tiferes Yisrael).
(d) We learn this from the Pasuk "Reishis Arisoseichem" - from which Chazal extrapolate 've'Lo shel Chayah' (your doughs, but not those that are baked on behalf of Chayos to eat').

14)
(a) The only ruling that pertains to it, irrespective of whether the shepherds partake of it or not is - that is subject to Tum'as Ochlin.
(b) A spoilt food is no longer subject to Tum'as Ochlin - when it is no longer fir foe a dog to eat (because then, a person will not partake from it either, even in a case of emergency.

Mishnah 9

15)
(a) A Zar who eats Terumah and a Zar who eats Chalah be'Meizid - are both Chayav Misah bi'Yedei Shamayim.
(b) They pay an extra Chomesh - to any Kohen they please, for eating them be'Shogeg.
(c) Despite the two previous rulings, the Tana may find it necessary to continue 'va'Asurim le'Zarim' - if he holds that one is Chayav for eating half Shi'ur (for which one is Chayav neither Misah nor Chomesh), as is the opinion of Rebbi Yochanan.
(d) When the Tana says 've'Hein Nechsei Kohen', he means - that the Kohen may purchase with it whatever he pleases (even Avadim, Karka'os and Beheimah Temei'ah).

16)
(a) In order to become Batel, they need to fall into - a hundred of Chulin.
(b) When the Tana says 'u'Te'unin Rechitzas Yadayim' he means - that whoever touches them must first wash his hands, since S'tam hands are considered Sheniyos le'Tum'ah.
(c) A Tamei Kohen becomes permitted to eat them - only when the nightfall after he has Toveled, arrives.

17)
(a) The Tana forbids separating Tahor Terumah and Chalah to cover Tamei Tevel - in case he places them together (known as 'min ha'Mukaf', which is obligatory), until they touch each other (which is not).
(b) Both Terumah and Chalah are subject to 'Gemar Melachah'. The Gemar Melachah of Chalah is - the kneading.
(c) The final ruling the Tana learns from the Pasuk "*Reishis* Arisoseichem" (regarding both Chalah and Terumah) is - that one may only give a part of one's Tevel to the Kohen, leaving some over for oneself.
(d) We learn that Chalah has the Din of Terumah (and in the final ruling, vice-versa) - from the fact that the Torah in Parshas Sh'lach-L'cha, also refers to Chalah as 'Terumah'.

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