Prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim

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Mishnah 1

(a) The Mishnah permits eating from a dough made of ...
1. ... wheat-flour - until it has been well-kneaded.
2. ... barley-flour - until it has been kneaded to the point that it crumbs easily, because that is what normally happens to a barley-dough.
(b) Somebody who eats it after that time - receives Misah bi'Yedei Shamayim.

(a) A woman who is kneading a dough should declare Chalah (assuming that the text reads ...
1. ... 'u'Vil'vad she'Yehei Sham Chameishes Reva'ei Kemach') - as soon as she has kneaded the Shi'ur that is Chayav Chalah.
2. ... 'u'Vil'vad she'Lo 'Yehei Sham Chameishes Reva'ei Kemach' - the moment she has less the Shi'ur Chalah left that still requires kneading.
(b) It is advisable, however, to do like the Yerushalmi, which rules - that someone who declares the dough Chalah, specifically incorporating the dough that has not yet been kneaded (see Tos. Yom-Tov).
(c) A man should in any event, teach his family - to separate Chalah before shaping the dough into bread.
(d) The Rabbanan instituted this Takanah - to ensure that the dough does not become Tamei before one has a chance to separate Chalah.

Mishnah 2

(a) A dough ...
1. ... of Terumah that falls into less than a hundred of Chulin become (Medumah and) Asur - if that occurred after the kneading has been completed.
2. ... which becomes Safek Tamei, becomes forbidden to be baked be'Tum'ah - if the Safek occurred after the kneading has been completed ...
(b) ... because once it has been kneaded, it becomes Tevulin le'Chalah (like Terumah) and Terumah Teluyah (i.e. Safek) needs to be guarded against Tum'ah.

Mishnah 3

(a) The Mishnah rules that a woman who declares her dough Hekdesh ...
1. ... and subsequently redeems it - is Chayav Chalah, and so she is if she declares it Hekdesh ...
2. ... before it is completed and subsequently redeems it.
(b) The Tana exempts her - only if she declares it Hekdesh before it has been kneaded and redeems it after the Gizbar of Hekdesh has kneaded it.
(c) We learn that a dough that is kneaded in the Reshus of Hekdesh is Patur from Chalah - from the word "Arisoseichem" (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

Mishnah 4

(a) The Mishnah likewise exempts someone who declares his fruit Hekdesh and subsequently redeems it - in the event that the declaration was made before it reached the stage of Ma'asros, and redeemed it only after the Gizbar brought it to that stage (see Tiferes Yisrael).
(b) We learn that fruit that reaches the stage of Ma'asros in the Reshus of Hekdesh is Patur from Ma'asros - from the word "D'gancha", from which Chazal Darshen 've'Lo Digun Hekdesh' (meaning the flattening of the heap performed by Hekdesh [see Tiferes Yisrael]).

Mishnah 5

(a) The Mishnah rules that if a Nochri gives a Yisrael flour to knead him a dough - the dough is not subject to Chalah.
(b) In the reverse case (where the Yisrael gave the Nochri flour to knead him a dough, says the Tiferes Yisrael - it is.
(c) In a case where the Nochri gives the Yisrael a dough as a gift - it will Chayav Chalah provided the Yisrael received the gift before the dough has been kneaded, but not afterwards.
(d) If a Yisrael and a Nochri are kneading a joint dough, the Yisrael is Chayav to separate Chalah - provided he owns the Shi'ur Chalah (five quarters of a Kav [see Tiferes Yisrael]).

Mishnah 6

(a) A Ger who possesses a dough is Chayav Chalah - if he kneads it after his conversion, but not if he kneaded it beforehand.
(b) In a case of Safek - he is Chayav to separate Chalah, because of the principle 'Safek Isur le'Chumra', but he is then permitted to sell it to a Kohen (since the Ger cannot prove his rights to it [see Tos. Yom-Tov and Tos. R. Akiva Eiger]).
(c) The Tana obligates the Zar to pay the Keren (is spite of the Chazakah that it is Patur) - because it is a Kaparah, but exempts him from the Chomesh - because it is not (see Tos. R. Akiva Eiger and Tos. Anshei Shem).
(d) R. Akiva disagrees with the Tana Kama in this case (and possibly with all the previous Mishnahs [see Tos. Yom-Tov). According to him, the Gemar Melachah for Chalah is (not the kneading of the dough, but) - when the bread crusts in the oven, and that is what determines whether the Ger is Chayav or Patur from separating Chalah.

Mishnah 7

(a) The Tana rules that a dough made from a combination of wheat and rice (see Tiferes Yisrael) - is subject to Chalah only if the taste of wheat can be recognized, but not otherwise.
(b) This Din applies even if the wheat on its own does not contain a Shi'ur Chalah.
(c) The same criterion will determine -whether one is Yotzei the Mitzvah of Matzah on Pesach (and probably which Berachah to recite), too.

Mishnah 8

(a) The Mishnah now discusses someone who takes the yeast from a dough whose Chalah has not yet been taken (see Tiferes Yisrael and Tos. R. Akiva Eiger), and places it in a dough where it has (ibid.). To rectify the yeast ...
1. ... assuming he has extra flour - he kneads a fresh dough, which, together with the yeast in the first dough. amounts to a Shi'ur that is Chayav Chalah, combines the two (see Tiferes Yisrael), and takes Chalah from the fresh dough to cover both.
2. ... if he has run out of flour - he separates one twenty-fourth (see Tiferes Yisrael) from the existing dough ...
(b) ... since Tevel renders Asur with as little as a 'Kolshehu' (even if it less than a sixtieth of the total) when it becomes mixed in the same species, rendering the entire dough into which it fell Tevel for Chalah.

Mishnah 9

(a) 'Zeisei Meisik' refers to olives picked by a Yisrael, 'Zeisei Nokef' - to olives picked by a Nochri ...
(b) ... which are Patur from Ma'asros.
(c) Similarly - 'Invei Batzir' (with reference to grapes from regular bunches) are subject to Ma'asros, whereas 'Invei Olelos' (grapes from incomplete clusters, which already belong to the Aniyim) are not.
(d) If the owner finds himself with a mixture of Zeisei Meisik and Zeisei Nokef (see Tiferes Yisrael [or Invei Batzir and Invei Olelos]), assuming that ...
1. ... he has other Tevel olives (or grapes) - he should separate all the Ma'asros from the latter to cover the 'Zeisei Meisik' (or the 'Invei Batzir') as well.
2. ... he has none left - he should separate from the entire mixture Terumah and Terumas Ma'aser (to give to the Kohen [see Tos. Yom-Tov] after separating Ma'aser Rishon), and from the remainder one tenth is Ma'aser Rishon and a second tenth Ma'aser Sheni (which he redeems [both in accordance with the amount of Zeisei Meisik (or Invei Batzir), or in the appropriate years, Ma'aser Ani.

(a) The basis of the Tana's distinction between Terumah and Terumas Ma'aser and the other Matanos - is the fact that eating Terumah and Terumas Ma'aser is an Isur (for which one is even Chayav Misah), whereas the other Ma'asros (including Ma'aser Sheni once it has been redeemed) are purely monetary issues (to which we apply the principle 'ha'Motzi me'Chaveiro, Alav ha'Re'ayah').
(b) Ma'aser Rishon is mentioned twice - because the first time he is obligated to separate it in order to separate Terumas Ma'aser from it, whereas the second time he is only obligated to give the Levi according to the amount that is actually Chayav.

Mishnah 10

(a) If the owner takes yeast from a dough made of wheat-flour and kneads it with a dough made of rice - he will be Chayav Chalah if the dough tastes of wheat (like we learned earlier in the Perek). Otherwise, it is Patur (see Tos. R. Akiva Eiger).
(b) The Mishnah reconciles this with the principle (that governed the previous Mishnahs) 'ha'Tevel Oser Kol Shehu' - by confining the latter to 'Miyn be'Miyno' (when it is mixed with the same species), but 'Miyn be'she'Eino Miyno' becomes Batel only when it leaves no taste (which is usually one in sixty).
(c) The reason for this distinction - is based on the source of 'Tevel Oser Kol Shehu', which is the principle 'ke'Hetero Kach Isuro', meaning that the Shi'ur Isur of Tevel is based on its Heter (and even one grain [min ha'Torah] exempts the entire pile of produce), a principle that is confined to grain belonging to the same species, but not to Miyn be'she'Eino Miyno (see Tos. Yom-Tov DH 'ha'Tevel Oser' and DH 've'she'Lo be'Miyno' and Tiferes Yisrael).

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