Prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim

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Mishnah 1

(a) The Mishnah discusses two doughs, each comprising a Kav, which touch. They will not combine (to be Chayav Chalah), even assuming they ...
1. ... are of the same kind - if they belong to two women.
2. ... belong to the same woman - if they are of two different kinds of grain (see Tiferes Yisrael).
(b) In the former case, the two do not combine ...
1. ... (even though they would, if they belonged to the same woman) - because women are generally particular that they should not combine.
2. ... even if they have been kneaded together - because they are destined to be separated.
(c) This Mishnah is not Halachah - in that it requires two Kabin to be Chayav Chalah (like Beis Hillel), whereas we rule that one and a quarter Kabin will suffice.

Mishnah 2

(a) A dough made of ...
1. ... spelt will combine with a wheat dough (to make up the Shi'ur that is Chayav Chalah [see beginning of Masechta]).
2. ... spelt, rye or oats will combine with a barley dough.
(b) R. Yochanan ben Nuri maintains - that doughs of spelt, rye and oats will combine too.
(c) The Halachah is - like R. Yochanan ben Nuri.

Mishnah 3

(a) The Mishnah rules that two independent Kabin of dough (of wheat, say), which are joined by ...
1. ... a rice dough (in the middle sticking to them - do not combine. Neither will they combine by means of ...
2. ... a Terumah dough (see Tos. Yom-Tov), since neither of the joining doughs are subject to Chalah.
3. ... a wheat dough whose Chalah has already been taken - do combine (seeing as the wheat dough was once subject to Chalah).

Mishnah 4 & 5

(a) It is forbidden to separate from a dough made from this year's crops to cover a dough made from last year's crops, or vice-versa.
(b) R. Yishmael therefore suggests that in the event that one has two such doughs, each comprising one Kav that stuck together - one takes Chalah from the middle (half from each dough).
(c) The Chachamim forbid it (see Tos. Yom-Tov and Tiferes Yisrael).

(a) According to R. Akiva, if someone takes Chalah from a Kav, his Chalah is valid - provided he subsequently makes up the Shi'ur that is Chayav Chalah (see Tos. Yom-Tov).
(b) The Chachamim - declare his Chalah invalid.
(c) If the owner took Chalah from each of the two Kabin and then combined them - R. holds that he does not need to take Chalah again, the Chachamim, that he does.

Mishnah 6

(a) The Mishnah permits someone who intends to knead a number of doughs from Demai that has become Tamei - to designate one Tahor dough from which Chalah has not yet been taken, from which he will separate Chalah for each Tamei dough of Demai that he kneads.
(b) He is permitted to continue using the Tahor dough - until it becomes unfit for human consumption.
(c) The Tana permits taking Chalah from Tahor to cover a Tamei one - because it is one of the concessions that they made with regard to Demai.
(d) Neither do the doughs need to be min ha'Mukaf (next to each other) whilst the Chalah is being taken.
(e) Furthermore, they permitted taking from bad quality grain to cover good quality grain.

(a) The Tana is speaking about someone who purchased (not dough [see Tos. Yom-Tov] but) grain from an ha'Aretz (see also Tiferes Yisrael).
(b) He is taking Chalah without having separated the required Ma'asros - because he intends to feed poor people or guests (which is permitted).

Mishnah 7

(a) The Mishnah now discusses Yisre'eilim who are working as Arisin in Syria. R. Eliezer declares their fruit subject to Ma'asros and Shevi'is - because in his opinion, the Chachamim gave Syria the Din of Eretz Yisrael regarding these two areas of Halachah.
(b) According to Raban Gamliel - they only gave it the Din of Eretz Yisrael with regard to land that is owned by a Yisrael exclusively.

(a) Raban Gamliel obligates separating Chalah twice in Syria - because he holds that the Chachamim decreed Tum'ah on the earth of Syria, like they did on other countries outside Eretz Yisrael, and Chalah Temei'ah must be burned.
(b) According to R. Eliezer - they gave Syria the Din of Eretz Yisrael completely, as we just explained, is which the first Chalah does not become Tamei, and may be given to a Kohen.
(c) Initially, they followed both lenient rulings - exempting the Arisin in Syria from Ma'asros (like Raban Gamliel) and separating only one Chalah (like R. Eliezer).
(d) The problem with that is - the principle that someone who follows the two leniencies of two conflicting opinions is called a Rasha.
(e) The final ruling is - like Raban Gamliel in both regards.

Mishnah 8

(a) Raban Gamliel lists three areas regarding Chalah. 'From Eretz Yisrael until Keziv (known as Achziv)' he says - requires only one Chalah to be taken.
(b) Keziv - which is north of Acco, is the northernmost city in Eretz Yisrael captured by the Olei Bavel and sanctified as part of Eretz Yisrael.
(c) The second area is from Keziv until the River (Shichar, see Tiferes Yisrael) in the east - and Amanah in the west ...
(d) ... which was captured by the Olei Mitzrayim, but not by the Olei Bavel (see also Tiferes Yisrael).
(e) They do not automatically have the status of Eretz Yisrael, in spite of the fact that the Olei Mitzrayim captured them - because the Tana holds that the first Kedushah was not permanent (i.e. it came to an end with the destruction of the first Beis Hamikdash).

(a) The first of the two Chalos that the owner takes must be burned - because since it was not captured by the Olei Bavel, it is subject to Tum'as Eretz ha'Amim.
(b) The Chachamim nevertheless instituted a second Chalah (see Tos-Yom-Tov) that must be eaten - because people might otherwise accuse them of burning Tahor Chalah ...
(c) ... seeing as (due to the fact that the Olei Mitzrayim had conquered it) it was not considered to be totally Eretz ha'Amim either (see Tos. Yom-Tov).
(d) The second Chalah - will cause them to realize the facts, or at least it will lead them to ask for an explanation.

(a) The first of the above Chalos requires a Shi'ur - a twenty-fourth for a private person and a forty-eighth (for a private person and a baker respectively [see Tos. Yom-Tov and Tiferes Yisrael).
(b) The first of the above Chalos requires a Shi'ur Chalah - because since the land was once Kadosh, it appears to be d'Oraysa; whereas the . second Chalah does not - since it is only mi'de'Rabbanan.
(c) The area from the River Shichar till Amanah and beyond has the status of Chutz la'Aretz - since it was never conquered, even by the Olei Mitzrayim.

(a) The third area, like the second, requires separating two Chalos, with the difference - that it is the Chalas ha'Or that does not have a Shi'ur, and the Chalah that is given to the Kohen that does (one forty-eighth).
(b) The Chalah shel Or is the main one, and the reason for the second Chalah - only so that they should not forget the Din of giving Chalah to the Kohen.
(c) And the reason the Chachamim ascribed a Shi'ur to it rather than to the Chalah shel Or is - because since they are both de'Rabbanan, it is more logical for the larger amount to be eaten rather than burned.

(a) The Chalah shel Or however, may be eaten by a Kohen Tevul Yom - which is defined as a Ba'al Keri who has Toveled.
(b) The reason for this leniency is - because the Chachamim confined the Isur of eating Chalas Chutz la'Aretz to a Kohen who emitted Tum'ah from his body (i.e. a Ba'al Keri who has not Toveled [see Tos. Yom-Tov cited shortly]).
(c) The Chalas ha'Or mentioned in our Mishnah - only applies where there is no 'T'vul-Yom' or Katan who never saw Tum'ah in the first place.
(d) Whereas the second Chalah may be eaten - even by a Kohen Ba'al-Keri who has not Toveled.

(a) Rebbi Yossi is more lenient than the Tana Kama in that - the Kohen does not need to have Toveled (though the Halachah is not like him).
(b) The Mishnah continues 'va'Asurah le'Zavim u'le'Zavos - le'Nidos u'le'Yoldos' (see Tos. Yom-Tov).
(c) The author of this ruling is - the Tana Kama (of Rebbi Yosi [see previous Tos. Yom-Tov]).
(d) The Tana adds that ...
1. ... it may be eaten - at the same table by which a Zar is eating (which a Kohen eating regular Chalah and Terumah may not do).
2. ... one may give it to a Kohen Talmid-Chacham who does not eat his Chulin be'Taharah (but not to a Kohen Am ha'Aretz [though the Rambam permits that too]).
(e) We learn from the Pasuk in Divrei Hayamim " ... Laseis M'nas ha'Kohanim ve'ha'Levi'im Lema'an Yechezku be'Toras Hash-m" - that one is obligated to give one's Terumos and Ma'asros to a Kohen Talmid-Chacham.

Mishnah 9

(a) The Mishnah permits giving ...
1. ... Charamim, Bechoros, Pidyon ha'Ben and Pidyon Peter Chamor to any Kohen - even to a Kohen who is not a Chaver (who has not undertaken to eat his Chulin be'Taharah [but not to a Kohen Am-ha'Aretz [see Tiferes Yisrael 39]).
(b) The Tana includes ...
1. ... Zero'a, Lechayayim and Keivah, Reishis ha'Gez and Shemen Sereifah in his list, as well as ...
2. ... Kodshei Hamikdash and Bikurim.
(c) 'Charamim' are - Kodshim that became holy by declaring 'Nechasai Muchramim la'Hashem' and that are given to the Kohanim. Whereas 'Shemen Sereifah' is - Tamei Terumah oil that has to be burned (but from the which the Kohen may benefit in the process).
(d) The Tana presents 'Bechoros' in the plural - because there are two kinds of Bechor Beheimah, a Bechor Tam (that is brought as a Korban) and a Bechor Ba'al-Mum, that the Kohen may eat even when he is Tamei.

(a) The Tana omits Terumah, Terumas Ma'aser and Chalah - because it is indeed forbidden to give a Kohen who is not a Chaver Kodshei ha'Gevul (that are eaten outside Yerushalayim) which may not eaten be'Tum'ah (see Tiferes Yisrael).
(b) The reason for this distinction is - because one can be certain that the Kohanim who enter the Beis-Hamikdash to eat Kodshei Mizbe'ach and to receive Bikurim, will make sure to Tovel first.

(a) Rebbi Yehudah adds Bikurim to this list - because, although it is brought to the Beis-Hamikdash, since the Kohanim do not perform any Avodah with it, the Chazakah that they Toveled is not there.
(b) R. Akiva includes Karshinei Terumah (horse-beans, which is a type of animal fodder) in the earlier list. According to the Chachamim - Karshinei Terumah is no different than regular Terumah.
(c) The basis of their Machlokes is - whether Karshinei is edible (the Chachamim [because people eat it when there is a shortage of food]), or not (R. Akiva).
(d) The Halachah regarding ...
1. ... Bikurim - is like the Chachamim of R. Yehudah.
2. ... Karshinei Terumah is - like the Chachamim of R. Akiva.

Mishnah 10

(a) Nitai Ish Tako'a took the Chalos that he brought from Beitar (in Chutz la'Aretz [see Tos. Yom-Tov DH 've'Lo Kiblu') to Eretz Yisrael and burned them on Erev Pesach.
(b) They could not be ...
1. ... eaten - because having come from Chutz la'Aretz, they were Tamei.
2. ... burned immediately - because since this is not something that everybody was aware of (see Tos. Yom-Tov), we are afraid that people will say that they saw Terumah Tehorah being burned.
3. ... taken back to Chutz la'Aretz - so that people should not say that they saw Terumah being taken to Chutz la'Aretz.
(c) The ...
1. ... Chalos that the men of Alexandria brought to Eretz Yisrael - were treated in the same way as those that Nitai Ish Tako'a brought from Beitar.
2. ... Bikurim that the men of Tzevu'im brought to the Beis-Hamikdash before Shavu'os - were sent back ...
(d) ... due to the Pasuk in Mishpatim "ve'Chag ha'Katzir Bikurei Ma'asecha Asher Tizra ba'Sadeh - which teaches us that bringing the Sh'tei ha'Lechem (referred to here as 'Bikurei Ma'asecha') that permits the new fruit to be brought to the Beis-Hamikdash (but not before [see Tos. Yom-Tov]).

Mishnah 11

(a) The Kohanim rejected the Bechoros that ben Antinus brought from Bavel to the Beis-Hamikdash (see Tos. Yom-Tov) ...
(b) ... due to the Pasuk in Re'ei "ve'Achalta Lifnei Hash-m ... Ma'asar Degancha ... u'Vechoros Bekorcha ... " - from which we learn that Bechoros can only be brought from the same place as Ma'aser Dagan (see Tiferes Yisrael).
(c) They turned Yosef ha'Kohen back when he brought ...
1. ... ready-made wine to the Beis-Hamikdash as Bikurim - because when he picked the first grapes, he did so with intention of bringing them as grapes (see Tos. Yom-Tov). Had he had in mind to bring them as wine, it would even have been permitted to do so (as we learned in Terumos with regard to wine and oil).
2. ... his young sons to Yerushalayim to bring Pesach Sheni on the fourteenth of Iyar - because whereas young children are Chayav to perform the Mitzvah of Re'iyah on Yom-Tov and to bring the Korban Pesach when they go, they are Patur from Pesach Sheni.
(d) Even though there is no harm in bringing a voluntary Shelamim - they nevertheless turned Yosef ha'Kohen back - in order not to set a precedent, because they were afraid that people would think that it is obligatory.

(a) The Kohanim accepted the Bikurim that Ariston brought from Apamya - in Syria, because the Chachamim gave Syria the Din of Eretz Yisrael in various regards (as we already learned earlier).
(b) The Chachamim declared that someone who purchases something in Syria - it is as if he had purchased it in the fields and villages of ('be'Parvar') Yerushalayim'
(c) They would not however, have accepted Terumah, had he brought that from Syria - because they were afraid that if they permitted the Terumah of Syria to be brought to Eretz Yisrael, the Kohanim of Eretz Yisrael would travel to Syria for it (see Tos. Yom-Tov).

*** Hadran Alach 'Sh'tei Nashim' u'Selika Lah Maseches Chalah ***

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