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Maseches Ma'asros follows Maseches Terumos, the Rambam explains, because the owner becomes obligated to separate Ma'asros after Terumah.


Mishnah 1

(a) In its first K'lal, the Mishnah lists three specifications required by crops, in order to be Chayav Ma'asros. The first two are that they are food and that they keep, the third - that they grow from the ground.
(b) When the Tana says ...
1. ... food - he is coming to preclude various kinds of plants that are mainly used for dyeing (even though they could be eaten if necessary).
2. ... that they are stored away - he precludes Hefker (which has no owner [see Tiferes Yisrael]).
3. ... that it grows from the ground - he precludes mushrooms (which grow from the air).
(c) All of these, he learns from the same Pasuk in Re'eh "Aser Te'aser ... ". From ...
1. ... "es Kol Tevu'as ... ", he learns that like produce, it must be fully edible.
2. ... " ... Zar'echa" (besides "Zar'echa", 'ha'Meyuchad Lach, P'rat le'Hefker' [see Tos. Yom-Tov]) he learns - something that will re-grow, when re-sown.

(a) When, in his second K'lal, the Tana speaks about something that is initially a food, and a food at the end - he is referring to - vegetables (which are ready to eat the moment they grow (only one generally waits until they grow bigger before picking them.
(b) He rules ...
1. ... that it is subject to Ma'asros even when it is still small.
2. ... about something which only becomes a food later - (with reference to fruit) - that it is only subject to Ma'asros when it actually becomes a fruit.
(c) He learn the latter ruling from the Pasuk in Bechukosai (in connection with Ma'aser Sheni) "mi'Zera ha'Aretz mi'P'ri ha'Etz" - by Darshening 'ad she'Yigdal ve'Ye'aseh P'ri (until it grows and actually becomes a fruit)'.

Mishnah 2

(a) The Tana defines 'ripeness' of figs (which determines when fruit attains the status of 'food' regarding Ma'asros [see Tos. R. Akiva Eiger]) as 'mi'she'Yavchilu', which means - when they show the first signs of ripeness (which the Gemara in turn, defines as 'when their tops turn pale).
(b) The Shi'ur of ripeness for ...
1. ... grapes and Be'ushim (poor- quality grapes) he gives as - when the pits become visible from the outside.
2. ... cherries and strawberries as - when they turn red ...
(c) ... and the same Shi'ur pertains to all red fruit.

(a) The Tana defines the ripeness of pomegranates as from the time they become soft ...
1. ... dates - when like dough, they begin to display cracks ...
2. ... peaches - when red 'nerves' appear in the skin, and ...
3. ... nuts - when the nut separates from the outer shell (giving the appearance of being in a storehouse).
(b) Rebbi Yehudah hold that nuts and almonds are only called a fruit - after the inner skin has grown round the fruit ...
(c) ... but the Halachah - is not like him.

Mishnah 3

(a) The Tana gives the Shi'ur P'ri for ...
1. ... carobs - and of all black fruit as when black dots first appear on the skin (when they begin to turn black).
2. ... pears, crustamenian pears, quinces and crab (or sorb)-apples as - when the hairs that cover the fruit's surface when they are small begins to fall out, leaving smooth patches on the skin (see Tiferes Yisrael 26) ...
(b) ... and the same, he says, applies to all pale fruit.
(c) He defines fenugreek as a fruit when it fully-grown - which means that when planted, it will re-grow. And one can put this to the test by placing the grains in water. If the majority of the grain sinks into the water, it is considered ripe (see Tiferes Yisrael).
(d) And produce and olives the Tana defines as fruit - once they have grown to one third of the full potential.

Mishnah 4

(a) The Shi'ur P'ri given by the Mishnah for cucumbers, pumpkins, watermelons and pickled cucumbers is - 'both big and small' (see Tiferes Yisrael).
(b) The same Shi'ur pertains to apples and Esrogim.
(c) According to Rebbi Shimon - small Esrogim are Patur from Ma'asros.

(a) One normally eats ...
1. ... bitter almonds - when they are small (and still edible).
2. ... sweet almonds - when they are big (and fully ripe).
(b) Consequently, the former is called a 'fruit' (and subject to Ma'asros) when it is small, but once it has fully grown); whereas the latter is exactly the other way round.

Mishnah 5

(a) The Mishnah now discusses the Shi'ur 'Goren' of various vegetables and fruit. The difference between the two Shi'urim ('fruit' and 'Goren') is - that the former determines the eligibility of the fruit regarding the Chiyuv, the latter, determines when the fruit may no longer be eaten (see also Tiferes Yisrael 53).
(b) The Shi'ur Goren the Tana gives for cucumbers and pumpkin is when the hair that grows on them when they are small (Tos. Yom-Tov [see also Tiferes Yisrael]) falls off (see Tiferes Yisrael). Whereas the Shi'ur that he gives for cucumbers and pumpkin whose hair the owner does not intend to remove is - when he collects them into a pile.
(c) The equivalent Shi'ur that he gives for watermelons with which the owner does ...
1. ... do Shiluk (which is the same as 'Pikus' regarding cucumbers and pumpkins) is - from when the owner removes the hair.
2. ... not do Shiluk is - when he spreads them out across the field (which is again similar to the pile which he makes regarding cucumbers and pumpkins).

(a) The Shi'ur the Tana gives for vegetables that are normally tied in bundles, assuming that he ...
1. ... does indeed tie them is - from then on.
2. ... decides to fill up a vessel with them instead is - from the time that fills the vessel.
3. ... decides to fill up a number of vessels is - from the time that he picks all that he intends to pick.
(b) Vegetables that one places inside a large basket are considered eligible for Ma'asros ...
1. ... assuming that one covers them with Lulav branches or leaves - from the moment that one does so.
2. ... if one if one does not (see Tos. Yom-Tov) - then it is from the time that one fills the basket.

(a) All of the above refers to vegetables that one intends to take to the market to sell. Vegetables that he is taking home to eat, says the Mishnah - he is allowed to eat until they enter the house ...
(b) ... since they are under his control (seeing as he will certainly not eat them as part of a fixed meal before they reach his Chatzer - whereas those that he intends to sell are under the control of the potential buyers, who may well purchase them from him immediately (see Tiferes Yisrael).
(c) We learn from the Pasuk in ki-Savo "Bi'arti ha'Kodesh min ha'Bayis" - that one's house (among other things [see Tiferes Yisrael]) fixes for Ma'asros.

Mishnah 6

(a) Pomegranate-grains, raisins and carobs all have the same Shi'ur Peiros - from the time that one forms a pile.
(b) The Shi'ur of onions is from when they are peeled, and of ...
1. ...produce - from the time that one flattens the pile ('Miru'ach', after winnowing).
2. ... of unpeeled onions and produce that one does not intend to flatten - is from the moment that they are arranged in a pile.
(c) The Shi'ur the Mishnah gives for legumes ...
1. ... that have been sifted is - from the moment that are sifted.
2. ... that have not been sifted is - from the Miru'ach and onwards.
(d) Finally - the Mishnah permits eating the broken grains that have not been threshed, from the sides of the pile that have not been flattened and from what is inside the 'straw' that has not been winnowed and that still contains stubble) from sifted legumes.

Mishnah 7

(a) The Shi'ur the Mishnah gives for wine that is floating in the wine-press together with the pits and skins of the grapes is - the moment they have been removed.
(b) Even after that however - the Tana permits wine that is in the upper vat and that is in the pipe that leads to the wine-press.
(c) He also rules that the oil ...
1. ... that has already dripped into the trough is forbidden, but the oil ...
2. ... that is still dripping from the 'Memel' (the heavy stone which presses the olives in the Ekel [Tiferes Yisrael]) and from between the 'Pitzim' (the planks which also squeeze out the oil from the olives) is permitted.
(d) The Tana includes the oil that is still dripping from the Ekel (often referred to as the 'Ekel Beis-ha'Bad') is - the rope-vessel in which the olives are placed for pressing.

(a) The Mishnah forbids adding the oil (that it just permitted) into a pot or a pan that is cooking or frying on the stove - because cooking automatically renders Tevel forbidden until it has been Ma'asered (see Tos. Yom-Tov).
(b) Yet he permits the oil to be used in a 'Chamitah' and into a dish that is in a 'Tamchuy' - because the former is not considered cooked, and the latter is a K'li Sheni (which is not considered cooking).
(c) Rebbi Yehudah is more lenient. He ...
1. ... permits even adding oil to a K'li Rishon (in which the food has been cooked) - once it has been removed from the stove (see Tos. R. Akiva Eiger), but he ...
2. ... concedes that this is forbidden - if it contains vinegar or brine (see Tiferes Yisrael).

Mishnah 8

(a) The Shi'ur Ma'asros of a ring of figs (Igul Deveilah) is - from the time that one smears its surface with juice.
(b) The Tana Kama permits using even the juice that emerges from figs and grapes of Tevel for this purpose (see also Tiferes Yisrael) - because he does not consider it Chashuv (since it is immediately used up).
(c) Rebbi Yehudah holds - that it is forbidden.

(a) According to the Tana Kama, a ring of figs that has been rubbed with the juice of grapes (see Tiferes Yisrael) is not Muchshar Lekabel Tum'ah - because he holds that liquid that one designates for shining fruit is not considered a beverage (see also Tiferes Yisrael).
(b) Rebbi Yehudah holds - that it is.
(c) The Halachah is - not like Rebbi Yehudah throughout the Mishnah.

(a) After the figs have been dried - one either threshes them inside a barrel with sticks ('Dishah') or fashions them with one's hands into a ring ('Igul').
(b) The Mishnah rules - that either of these two procedures renders the dried figs subject to Ma'asros.
(c) If the barrel breaks in the middle, the Tana Kama forbids eating them even casually - Rebbi Yossi permits it ...
(d) ... because, since all the figs need each other, and some of them have not yet been threshed - the Melachah has not yet been finished; whereas the Tana Kama maintains that the figs that have been done do not need those that have not, in which case the Melachah, as far as they are concerned, is completed, and they are forbidden.
(e) The Halachah is like the Tana Kama.

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