Prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim

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Mishnah 1

(a) The Mishnah rules that someone who ...
1. ... pickles, cooks well (see Tos. Yom-Tov and Tirferes Yisrael) or salts vegetables or olives that are still in the field - this fixes for Ma'asros.
2. ... hides not fully ripe vegetables or olives in the ground (to fully ripen) - it does not fix for Ma'asros.
3. ... dips vegetables or olives in salt before eating them - it does not fix for Ma'asros either.
(b) So we see that fire and salt (and pickling [see Tos. Yom-Tov]) fix for Ma'asros. The other four things that fix for Ma'asros are - a sale, taking Ma'asros, Shabbos and a guarded Chatzer.
(c) Olives which the owner ...
1. ... has squashed to make them sweet - do not require Ma'asering.
2. ... have squeezed on to his skin (to anoint it) - do not require Ma'asering either.
3. ... has squeezed into the palm of his hand - need to be Ma'asered.

(a) Finally, the Mishnah discusses 'Makpeh' (with regard to grapes) - meaning the removal of the pits and skins that the grapes sheds whilst they are being heated.
(b) The Tana rules in a case where the owner does this to the grapes after they have been ...
1. ... added to a dish that is ready to be cooked - that one is permitted to eat from them Arai without having to Ma'aser, but not in a case where they have been ...
2. ... placed in an otherwise empty dish.
(c) In the fore-last case, the dish must be as yet uncooked - because otherwise, it would have needed to be Ma'asered first due to the cooking (see Tiferes Yisrael).

Mishnah 2

(a) The Mishnah rules that figs that children put away for Shabbos and forgot to Ma'aser first - remain forbidden on Motzei Shabbos (see Tiferes Yisrael) until they have been Ma'asered (see Tos. R. Akiva Eiger).
(b) The Tana must be speaking when they did this in the field - because once they have reached the house or the Chatzer, they must be Ma'asered first anyway.
(c) He is coming to teach us - that the Machshavah of a Katan is considered a Machshavah there where it is supported by his actions (see Tos. R. Akiva Eiger).
(d) The figs are forbidden even after Shabbos - because, seeing as Shabbos fixes for Ma'asros, they do not become permitted after Shabbos (see Tiferes Yisrael, note 19).

(a) Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel argue over whether one may eat Kalkeles Shabbos without Ma'asering (Beis Shamai) or not (Beis-Hillel). 'Kalkeles Shabbos' is - a basket of fruit that has been picked in honor of Shabbos even before Shabbos arrives.
(b) Rebbi Yehudah rules that if someone who picks a basketful of figs to send to his friend - he becomes immediately forbidden to eat from it until he Ma'asers it ...
(c) ... before designating it in this way (see Tiferes Yisrael) gives it the same importance as a Kalkeles Shabbos.

Mishnah 3

(a) The Mishnah discusses olives that have been removed from the Ma'atan - the basket in which the olives are placed to be softened before pressing.
(b) The Tana rules - that one may only salt them one at a time and eat them (because salting and combining them fixes them for Ma'asros [see also Tiferes Yisrael]).
(c) Rebbi Eliezer concurs with this ruling with regard to a Tamei person taking from a Tahor Ma'atan - because having rendered the olives that he took Tamei, he is unable to return them to the Ma'atan, which is still Tahor (see Tos. Yom-Tov).
(d) Consequently, in the same case (see Tos. Yom-Tov) but where the Ma'atan is Tamei, he permits eating them without Ma'asering, seeing as he is able to return the leftover olives to the Ma'atan.

Mishnah 4

(a) Rebbi Meir permits drinking directly from the wine-press, even if he dilutes the wine with hot water (see Tiferes Yisrael). We are not afraid that he will take the wine away and drink it elsewhere - because he permits it only on condition that he leans his head and most of his body over the well whilst he drinks (which will remind him not to carry the wine).
(b) Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Tzadok forbids it even if he dilutes it with cold water - because he is afraid that, even if he does lean, he will forget and carry the wine).
(c) The Chachamim compromise - permitting him to drink if he has diluted the wine with cold water (like Rebbi Meir), but forbidding it if the water is hot ...
(d) ... because he will not want to return the leftover wine (not because he may to carry, but due to the fact that) it may spoil the rest of the wine.

Mishnah 5

(a) The Mishnah permits peeling barley and eating it without Ma'asering it provided he does so one a time (see Tiferes Yisrael), without placing it into his other hand before eating it (see Tos. Yom-Tov).
(b) One may however, peel as many as one wants and eat them - when it is close to the threshing season (when they are placed in the granary), because at that stage, one tends to return the leftovers to the pile to be threshed.
(c) The Tana permits however, Molel Melilos of wheat - which means that, after they grains have been heated in the oven, one rolls them in one's hand to remove the outer husk and eats them.

(a) Wheat is more lenient than barley - in that even three grains are permitted (see Tiferes Yisrael).
(b) Before eating the kernels, he then gets rid of the husks - by emptying them from hand to hand.
(c) He is not permitted - to toss them on to his lap.

(a) The Mishnah rules that coriander seeds that one planted for ...
1. ... their seeds, but which actually grew into vegetables - are not subject to Ma'aser.
2. ... their vegetables, if he then harvested them either as vegetables or as seeds - are subject to Ma'aser.
(b) The reason for the difference is - because the seeds are more Chashuv than the vegetables. Consequently, once one plants for the seeds, the vegetables are not Chashuv, but not vice-versa.
(c) When, in addition to the two above types of harvest, he Rebbi Elazar adds 'Zirin' to aniseed seeds, he mean - that one is also obligated to Ma'aser them as branches. And they are Chayav Ma'asros in whichever way he harvests it - even if he planted them S'tam.
(d) The Chachamim disagree with Rebbi Elazar. According to them - the only two vegetables that, when planted S'tam, must be Ma'asered whether one ultimately eats them as seeds or as vegetables, are cress and 'Gargir' (the garden-rocket plant).

(a) Raban Shimon ben Gamliel rules that the branches (or the berries) of the fenugreek, mustard and white-bean plants - are all subject to Ma'asros.
(b) According to Rebbi Eliezer, the caper-bush fruit is subject to Ma'asros on three fronts, the Temaros ...
1. ... the Evyonos - the actual fruit, and ...
2. ... the Kapras - the peel which acts as a protection.
(c) Rebbi Akiva holds - that only the Kapras is subject to Ma'asros ...
(d) ... and the Halachah - is like Rebbi Akiva.

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