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Prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
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PE'AH PEREK 1
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Mishnah 1

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1)
(a) Among the things that have no Shi'ur, our Mishnah lists Pe'ah - min ha'Torah. When the Mishnah later gives the Sh'iur of Pe'ah as at least one sixtieth, it is referring to a Shi'ur de'Rabbanan.
(b) Besides Pe'ah, the Tana includes - Ra'ayon, Gemilus Chasadim and Talmud-Torah in the list of things which have no Shi'ur.
(c) Seeing as the Mitzvah of 'Ra'ayon' comprises appearing on Yom-Tov in the Beis-Hamikdash, the Halachah that 'Ra'ayon has no Shi'ur' might mean - a. that one may fulfill one's obligation to visit the Beis-Hamikdash at any time during Yom-Tov (i.e. by entering the Beis-Hamikdash, remaining for a moment and taking one's leave), and b. with reference to the Olas Re'iyah which one takes to the Beis-Hamikdash, which has no minimum price-tag.
(d) Here too, the Rabbanan give a Shi'ur, one silver Ma'ah for the Olas Re'iyah - two for the Shalmei Chagigah.

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2)
(a) Gemilus-Chasadim must be referring to performing a personal kindness with someone who needs it (such as visiting a sick person or burying the dead) because when it comes to Gemilus Chesed with one's money (such as redeeming captives or feeding the hungry) - the Rabbanan have prescribed the maximum of a fifth (see Chidushei Maharich).
(b) One is therefore advised - to set aside a fifth (maximum) of one's profits for the performance of such Mitzvos should they arise.
(c) We know that Talmud-Torah has no Shi'ur - from the Pasuk in Yehoshua "ve'Hagisa Bo Yomam va'Laylah".
(d) The Tana says that ...
1. ... Kibud Av va'Em, Gemilus Chasadim and Hava'as Shalom Bein Adam la'Chavero, all receive the fruit of one's endeavors in this world, whereas the principle is paid in the World to Come.
2. ... Talmud-Torah - is equal to them all (see Tiferes Yisrael).

Mishnah 2

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3)
(a) When the Tana says (in connection with Pe'ah) ...
1. ... 'ha'Kol Le'fi Rov ha'Sadeh', he means - that even though the minimum Shi'ur for Pe'ah is a sixtieth, someone with a large field, should leave more (even if there are not many Aniyim).
2. ... 'ha'Kol Le'fi Rov ha'Aniyim', he means - that if there are many Aniyim, one should leave more Pe'ah (even though he owns only a small field).
(b) The third thing listed by the Mishnah is 'Anavah'. Assuming the text to be ...
1. ... 'Anavah' with a 'Vav', it means - according to his Midos (of which humility is the base).
2. ... 'Aniyah' (like the Rambam's version), it means -according to the amount that the field yields (from a Lashon of 'response').
3. ... 'Anavah' with a 'Veis', it means - according to the size of the fruit (meaning that if the produce is larger and fuller in one part of the field, and smaller in another, one should leave at least some of the Pe'ah from the good produce).

Mishnah 3

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4)
(a) Ideally speaking, one should one leave Pe'ah - at the end of one's field.
(b) We nevertheless learn from the Pasuk "Lo Sechaleh Pe'as Sadcha Li'Ketzor" - that wherever one leaves Pe'ah, it is effective.
(c) Rebbi Shimon still obligates someone who leaves Pe'ah at the beginning of the field or in the middle, to leave Pe'ah at the end - because the Pasuk only teaches us that Pe'ah anywhere in the field, has the Din of Pe'ah. It says nothing about not leaving at the end of the field (which is the basic obligation).
(d) According to the Rambam, the Shi'ur that he leaves at the end of his field does not include what he left already (see Tosfos Yom-Tov). We can extrapolate from the Yerushalmi however - that it does (see also Tosfos Anshei Shem).

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5)
(a) Rebbi Yehudah disagrees. According to him, it will suffice to subsequently leave even one stalk at the end of his field (and the rest remains Pe'ah, too). In a case where the owner simply left the full Shi'ur Pe'ah in the middle of his field - all the 'Pe'ah' that he left has a Din of Hefker (and not Pe'ah at all), and he remains obligated to leave the full Shi'ur at the end of the field.
(b) The difference whether what he leaves is Hefker or Pe'ah is - that the former is permitted to the wealthy as well, the latter, only to the poor.

Mishnah 4

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6)
(a) The Tana learns from the expression "u've'Kutzrechem (es K'tzir Artzechem)" that - only what is considered food is subject to Pe'ah, precluding the after-growth of a dye called 'Sitis' (and suchlike), which is edible at a pinch, but is not a food.
(b) And he learns from ..
1. ... "le'Ani ve'la'Ger Ta'azov Osam" - that Hefker is Patur from Pe'ah (because one cannot leave what has already been left).
2. ... "Ketzir Artzechem" - that mushrooms and the like, which do not nurture from the ground, but from the air are not subject to Pe'ah.
(c) And when he adds 'Lekitaso ke'Achas' to the list - he means to preclude figs and such-like, which grow sporadically (and cannot be harvested in bulk).
(d) The last specification on the Tana's list of requirements for the Chiyuv Pe'ah is - 'Machniso le'Kiyum', which means something that can be preserved, to preclude crops that go bad after a short time, such as vegetables.

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7)
(a) The Tana - incorporates Tevu'ah ve'Kitnis (crops and legumes) in the Din of Pe'ah, provided all the above conditions are met.
(b) The term ...
1. ... 'Tevu'ah' incorporates - wheat, barley, rye, oats and spelt.
2. ... 'Kitnis' incorporates - beans, peas and lentils and such-like.

Mishnah 5

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8)
(a) The Tana rules - that an Og, nut, carob, almond and vine tree are all subject to Pe'ah.
(b) An 'Og' is - a type of cherry-tree or, as the Rambam explains, a plant that is used for tanning, but whose clusters of fruit are edible.
(c) The list also includes - pomegranate, olive and date trees.
(d) This list is by no means exclusive (but includes trees of a similar nature.

Mishnah 6

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9)
(a) Someone who picked the entire crop and forgot to leave Pe'ah - is obligated to give Pe'ach from the fruit that he picked.
(b) The Tana discusses the Din of Ma'aser from these crops (in the current case). One becomes Chayav to separate Ma'aser - from the time that Miru'ach (flattening the pile after the winnowing) has been performed.
(c) That being the case, one is ...
1. ... permitted to give Pe'ah without separating Ma'asros - as long as one gave the Pe'ah to the poor before the Miru'ach.
2. ... obligated to separate Ma'aser before giving Pe'ah - if he made the Miru'ach first.

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10)
(a) The Tana learn from the Pasuk "U'va ha'Levi Ki Ein Lo Chelek ve'Nachalah Imach" - that Hefker, in which Levi'im have as much share as Yisre'elim, is Patur from Ma'aser.
(b) One may feed one's animals without separating Ma'aser - up to the time that one makes Miru'ach (at which stage one becomes obligated to Ma'aser them.
(c) The Tana sees fit to mention the Heter of feeding one's animals before Miru'ach (even though the owner too, is then permitted to eat from the fruit) - because (unlike the owner, who is only permitted to eat from it casually) one may even feed one's animals fixed meals.

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11)
(a) We learn from the Pasuk "Aser Te'aser ... Ve'achalta" - that one is Patur from Ma'asering crops that one intends to re-sow (and not eat).
(b) Rebbi Akiva learns from there the additional leniency - that before Miru'ach, one is permitted to re-sow them even mi'de'Rabbanan (who forbade it after Miru'ach).
(c) The Halachah however - is not like Rebbi Akiva.

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12)
(a) The Mishnah permits a Kohen and a Levi who purchase produce before the Miru'ach, to retain the Ma'asros for themselves. If they were to purchase it after the Miru'ach - the Rabbanan would obligate them to Ma'aser it and to give it to other Kohanim and Levi'im (in order to discourage them from claiming Terumos and Ma'asros from the wine-press and the granary, thereby stopping their fellow-Kohanim from obtaining Matanos Kehunah and Levi'ah [see Tosfos Yom-Tov]).
(b) The Tana is nevertheless lenient in the first case - because the Chiyuv Ma'asros has not yet taken effect.
(c) Finally, the Mishnah obligates someone who declares his field Hekdesh and then redeems it, to separate Ma'asros. He would however, be Patur - if he redeemed it after the treasurer had performed Miru'ach, because Hekdesh is not subject to Ma'asros.

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