Prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim

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Mishnah 1

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(a) When the Mishnah writes 've'Eilu Mafsikin le'Pe'ah', it means - that when any of the following divide between two fields, one is Chayav to leave two lots of Pe'ah, one in each field.
(b) The first six items that the Tana lists, he presents in pairs. Together with ...
1. ... a river, he lists - a canal of water (that sends water along its tributaries).
2. ... a private road, he lists - a public road.
3. ... a public path, he lists a private road, both of which are used in winter as well as in summer.
(c) The difference between a private road and a public one is in size - whereas the former is four Amos wide, the latter is sixteen.
(d) In spite of having taught us that a private road divides between the fields, the Tana finds it necessary to add a public one - because of the Seifa, where he will teach us that even a public road does not interrupt in the case of a tree, as we will explain there.

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(a) The definition of a private path is - one that is so narrow that one cannot place one's two feet on it side by side.
(b) The Tana needs to insert the case of a public path, despite having already taught us the Din by a private one - to teach us that even a public path must be regularly used in winter as well as in summer, before it can divide a field into two.
(c) The Tana includes in the list ...
1. ... 'Bur' - a field that is lying fallow.
2. ... 'Nir' - a field that has been plowed.
3. ... 'Zera Acher' - a field which lies between two fields and which is sown with different crops that them (see Tosfos Rebbi Akiva Eiger).
(d) The Shi'ur of all three is - three furrows wide (of the handle of the plow) see Tosfos Rebbi Akiva Eiger.

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(a) Rebbi Meir adds 'ha'Kotzer la'Shachas' - which means that someone reaped the crops from the middle section of his field before they have grown even a third ...
(b) ... which Rebbi Meir considers a break between the two fields. This is because, seeing as these crops are generally used to feed one's animals (see Tosfos Rebbi Akiva Eiger), he does not consider it part of the harvest.
(c) The Chachamim - agree with this only if the owner subsequently plows the field ...
(d) ... because then it will have the Din of a Sadeh Nir (that we learned in the Reisha). Otherwise, they consider it the beginning of the harvest (in which case the owner needs to leave only one Pe'ah).

Mishnah 2

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(a) When Rebbi Yehudah says 'Amas ha'Mayim she'Einah Yecholah Le'hikatzer ke'Achas Mafsekes', he means - that if a canal runs through the field, then it divides the field into two only if it is sufficiently wide that if the owner stands in the middle and reap the corn growing on either bank, he cannot reach both sides simultaneously.
(b) He argues with the Tana in the previous Mishnah - who lists 'Shelulis' among the things that divide the two fields, irrespective of its width.
(c) When the Mishnah says 've'Chol he'Harim Asher be'Ma'adar Ye'adrun', it means - hills which are too steep for an ox with its plowing implements to climb.
(d) The Tana nevertheless considers it part of the two fields on either side - because the workers are able to plow without the oxen (see Tiferes Yisrael).

Mishnah 3

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(a) When the Tana says 'ha'Kol Mafsik li'Zera'im', he comes to include a rock, provided it runs across the entire width of the field.
(b) The only thing that divides trees into two, to obligate the owner to leave two Pe'ahs - is a wall that is at least ten Tefachim tall.
(c) But even that will not divide them - if the branches of the trees intertwine above the wall.

Mishnah 4

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(a) A wall between two carob-trees will not divide with regard to Pe'ah - if one stands by one of the trees and can see the other one in spite of the wall (because carob-trees tend to grow very tall [see Tosfos Yom-Tov]).
(b) Raban Gamliel's cites his father, who used to give one Pe'ah for all the carob-trees that one could see in this way. As far as olive-trees are concerned - he used to give one Pe'ah for all the trees that he owned on one side of the town (e.g. on the north side).
(c) According to Rebbi Eliezer b'Rebbi Tzadok however - he used to give one Pe'ah on all the olive-trees that he owned in the town.

Mishnah 5

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(a) The Mishnah rules that someone who sows his field with ...
1. ... one kind of crop, but who intends to gather two harvests - leaves one Pe'ah for both harvests (see Tosfos Yom-Tov).
2. ... two kinds of crops, but who intends to gather them at the same time - leaves two lots of Pe'ah (because the Chiyuv Pe'ah is determined by the number of crops, and not by the number of harvests).
(b) The number of harvests will determine how many lots of Pe'ah to leave however - in a case where the owner sowed two different types of wheat (for example).

Mishnah 6

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(a) Rebbi Shimon Ish ha'Mitzpeh sowed two kinds of wheat in the days of Raban Gamliel - he went to the Sanhedrin ha'Gadol to the Lishkas ha'Gazis (see Tiferes Yisrael) to find out how many Pe'ahs he had to leave.
(b) Nachum ha'Lavlar (the Sofer), a member of the Sanhedrin, quoted Rebbi Meyasha who received the ruling from his (Nachum ha'Lavlar's) father - who in turn, received it from the pairs (as quoted in Pirkei Avos), who heard it from the Nevi'im (Chagai, Zecharyah and Malachi).
(c) The ruling in question was - to go after the number of harvests, as we learned in the previous Mishnah.
(d) The ultimate source of this ruling is - Halachah le'Moshe mi'Sinai.

Mishnah 7

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(a) The Mishnah rules - that a field which Kutim (Nochrim) or robbers harvested - is Patur from Pe'ah ...
(b) ... provided that the Kutim harvested it for themselves, and not on behalf of the owner (see Tosfos Rebbi Akiva Eiger and Tosfos Anshei Hash-m).
(c) And the Tana incorporates in the above list a field whose stalks of wheat were cut down by ants or blown down by the wind.

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(a) The final case cited by the Mishnah is - one where animals broke the stalks.
(b) The Tana's source for all this is - the word "u've'Kutzrechem" (implying that it is the owner on whose behalf the crop must be harvested, and not that of somebody else).
(c) If the owner harvested half the crops and robbers the other half, the Mishnah exempts the owner from leaving Pe'ah - because when he cut the first half, he placed the entire Chiyuv Pe'ah on the second half (which was subsequently not cut on his behalf).
(d) The Halachah that if the owner cut the entire crop, he is obligated to give Pe'ah from the cut corn - pertains specifically to where he himself harvested the entire field (because he does not have the right to negate the Mitzvah of Pe'ah), but not to where it was performed by others (where the owner did nothing wrong).

Mishnah 8

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(a) In the reverse case, where robbers harvested half the crops, and the owner, the other half, the Tana rules - that he is obligated to leave Pe'ah.
(b) And in a case where he cut half the corn, and ...
1. ... sold the other half, the Tana rules - that the purchaser is obligated to leave Pe'ah.
2. ... declared the other half Hekdesh, he rules - that whoever redeems it from Hekdesh, must do so.
(c) The reason for these two rulings is - because the Chiyuv Pe'ah takes effect on the second half, as we just learned (and it is self-understood that the owner cannot sell or be Makdish the Pe'ah, which is not his).
(d) If the owner sold half the crops and harvested the other half himself - each one is obligated to leave Pe'ah in his half of the field.

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