Prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim

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Mishnah 1

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(a) Beis Shamai holds 'Hefker la'Aniyim Hefker'. He learns it - from the words "Ta'azov Osam" (in the Pasuk in Kedoshim [in connection with Leket and Pe'ah] "le'Ani ve'la'Ger Ta'azov Osam"), from which he extrapolates that there is another case of Hefker that is just like this one (which goes only to the poor).
(b) The ramifications of this ruling are - that if someone declares His field Hefker for the poor only, it is Patur from Ma'aser.
(c) Beis Hillel say - that it is not Hefker ...
(d) ... unless it is Hefker for the rich too - like Shemitah.

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Beis Shamai hold that if the owner forgot a sheaf of four Kabin, whilst all the other sheaves comprised only one, it is not Shikchah (see Tosfos Yom-Tov). Beis Hillel say - that it is.

Mishnah 2

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(a) According to Beis Shamai, a sheaf that the owner placed next to a Gafah, a hay-stack, a group of cattle or plowing implements, and then forgot about it, is not Shikchah. A 'Gafah' is - a wall made of stones that has not been cemented.
(b) Beis Shamai's reason (based on the fact that the owner put the sheaf down there after having already picked it up to carry to town) is - because once he does that, he acquires it.
(c) Beis Hillel say - that it is Shikchah.

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(a) According to the second explanation, the are arguing in a case where the owner has not yet taken the sheaf, and Beis Shamai's reason is - because seeing as he put it down in a specific location, he is bound to remember it.
(b) According to this explanation, in a case where the owner already picked up the sheaf before putting it down - Beis Hillel will concede that it is not Shikchah.

Mishnah 3

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The Mishnah rules that the last sheaf in the row (which will be explained in the next Mishnah) and one that he picked up to take to town and then put down, both of which he 'forgot' - are not Shikchah (even according to Beis Hillel).

Mishnah 4

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(a) The Mishnah describes how two people begin to gather sheaves starting from the middle of the row, one facing northwards, the other southwards. The Tana rules in a case where they start gathering ...
1. ... back to back, and where one of them subsequently forgets one of the sheaves that are in front of him - that it is Shikchah (because it is subject to "Lo Sashuv Lekachto").
2. ... with a sheaf in between them, and they both subsequently forget that sheaf - it is not Shikchah ...
(b) ... because, since each one relies on the other one to gather it, it is not subject to "Lo Sashuv Lekachto".
(c) Discussing the case of 'the last sheaf in the row' (referred to in the previous Mishnah), the Tana says that in a case where a single gatherer 'forgets' a sheaf ...
1. ... behind him (i.e. in the middle of the row running north to south which he is collecting) - it is Shikchah.
2. ... in front of him (at the end of the row) - it is not Shikchah ...
(d) ... because 'ha'Omer she'Kenegdo Mochi'ach' - meaning that the fact that the forgotten sheaf is in a row running from east to west, which he has not yet begun to collect, indicates that he has not really forgotten it, but rather that he intends to gather it later as part of that row.
(e) The principle that governs these two rulings is - whether it is 'be'Bal Tashuv' (meaning that he will not go back for it [the former case] or not [the latter case]).

Mishnah 5

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(a) The Mishnah rules that ...
1. ... two sheaves - are Shikchah, but three are not.
2. ... two piles of olives or of carobs - are Shikchah, but three are not.
3. ... two stalks of flax - are Shikchah, but three are not.
(b) When the Tana draws the same distinction between two ...
1. ... grapes and three grapes, it is referring to - Peret.
2. ... two grains of corn and three grains, it is referring to - Leket.
(c) All this is the opinion of Beis Hillel. Beis Shamai draws the distinction between - three and four.
(d) Beis Hillel derives their opinion from the Pasuk in Kedoshim "le'Ani ve'la'Ger Ta'azov Osam" (one for the Ani and one for the Ger), Beis Shamai derive theirs from Pasuk in Ki Setzei - "la'Ger, la'Yasom ve'la'Almanah Yih'yeh".

Mishnah 6

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(a) The Mishnah rules that a sheaf that contains two Sa'ah of corn (see Tosfos Yom-Tov) - is Patur from Shikchah.
(b) The Tana learns this from the Pasuk "Lo Sashuv Lekachto" - which implies that one is not permitted to return for a sheaf that one is able to pick one in one go (to preclude one of two Sa'ah, which is to big for that).
(c) Raban Gamliel says that if he forgets two sheaves that measure two Sa'ah, they are not Shikchah either. The Chachamim say - that they are.

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(a) When Raban Gamliel made the Chachamim concede that the more sheaves the owner forgets the better it is for him - he was referring to the previous Mishnah 'Shnei Amarim Shikchah, Sheloshah Einah Shikchah'.
(b) In which case, we ought to say by the same token that if one sheaf of two Sa'ah is not Shikchah, how much more so, two.
(c) The Chachamim counter Raban Gamliel's proof however, with the argument that one cannot learn two sheaves of two Sa'ah as against one from a case of three regular sheaves as against two - because in the latter case one sheaf is similar (and is compared to) a haystack, whilst two are not).

Mishnah 7

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(a) The Mishnah now rules that an area of standing corn that measures two Sa'ah - is not considered Shikchah.
(b) We learn from the Pasuk "ve'Shachachta Omer ba'Sadeh" - that standing corn is subject to Shikchah too.
(c) And we learn the Shi'ur of two Sa'ah with regard to Shikchas Kamah - from Shikchas Omer.

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(a) The Tana rules that if the standing corn does not amount to Sasayim, even if it is as little as a Tofach, it is considered as if it was an Anavah ... . He is talking about barley ...
(b) ... and what he means is that if the fully grown crops would have amounted to two Sa'ah, only they did not because, due to a drought the kernels did not reach their full size (known as 'Tofach'), then we consider them as if they had grown to their full size ('Anavah' with a 'Vav' which is synonymous with 'Anavah' with a 'Veis').
(c) We cannot take 'Tofach' to mean a Tefach - because the Yerushalmi explains the Mishnah in the way that we just did.
(d) In fact, if the harvest was simply less than two Sa'ah - it would be Shikchah.

Mishnah 8

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(a) When the Tana says that Kamah saves an Omer, he means that if he did not forget the former, which is situated directly beside an Omer which he did, it saves it from becoming Shikchah.
(b) He learns this from the Pasuk in Ki Setzei "Ki Siktzor ... ve'Shachachta Omer", which implies - that a sheaf that is surrounded by harvested crops is considered Shikchah, but not if it is surrounded by standing corn (which has generally not been forgotten).
(c) Kamah which the owner did not forget (see Tiferes Yisrael) saves Kamah which he did - only if it (loosely) joined to it.
(d) In the reverse case, says the Tana, where an Omer which the owner forgot is beside another Omer or Kamah which he did - it does not save them from becoming Shikchah.
(e) Even one stalk of Kamah is sufficient to save an Omer or other Kamah from becoming Shikchah.

Mishnah 9

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(a) Our Mishnah rules that a Sa'ah of ...
1. ... cut corn plus a Sa'ah of standing corn - do not combine to make up two Sa'ah ( in which case both are subject to Shikchah).
2. ... detached fruit from a tree, plus a Sa'ah of attached fruit - do not combine either.
(b) The same will apply to two Sa'ah of garlic or of onions. Alternatively, 'be'Ilan, ve'ha'Shum ve'ha'Betzalim' means - that garlic and onions do not combine to make up two Sa'ah.
(c) In principle, Rebbi Yossi disagrees with this. He will agree with it however - there where the 'possession of the Ani interrupts between the two Sa'in.
(d) An example of this would be if there was Leket (of corn) or Peret (of grapes) in between them. This is not possible in a case where they are divided by fruit-trees - because neither Leket nor Peret applies to fruit-trees.

Mishnah 10

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(a) Our Mishnah discusses produce which has been planted to use as Shachas (animal fodder) or Alumah - to bind other sheaves.
(b) The Tana - exempts them from Shikchah.
(c) And the same applies to ...
1. ... Agudei ha'Shum' - bundles of garlic which have been picked (not to eat, but) to tie other bundles of garlic, and to ...
2. ... Agudos ha'Shum ve'ha'Betzalim - small sheaves of which five or six will later be tied into one large sheaf ...
(d) ... which are exempt from Shikchah, due to the fact that they have not yet reached the stage of 'Gemar Melachah' (as we learned at the end of the previous Perek).

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(a) What is unusual about the way Luf (a species of onion) and regular onions (radishes and turnips) grow - is the fact that the edible section of the vegetable is Tamun (hidden underground.
(b) Rebbi Yehudah now learns from the word "Sadecha" (in the Pasuk in Ki Setzei (written in connection with Shikchah) "ki Siktzor Ketzircha be'Sadecha" - that since they are not revealed like the field, they are Patur from Shikchah.
(c) Whereas the Chachamim learn from the additional word "Ketzircha" - which is in fact a 'Miyut Achar Miyut' (two consecutive exclusions, which come to include), that they are included (see Tosfos Yom-Tov).

Mishnah 11

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The Mishnah rules that someone who ...
1. ... reaps or who binds sheaves at night-time or a blind man even in day-time - is nevertheless Chayav Shikchah (see Tiferes Yisrael).
2. ... deliberately picks the large stalks - is Patur (see Meleches Shlomo).
3. ... stipulates that whatever he forgets he will take - is nevertheless Chayav Shikchah (see Tiferes Yisrael).

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