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Terumos follows Shevi'is, says the Rambam, because it is the first Matnas Kehunah that takes effect from the seeds.

Please note that, unless otherwise stated, we refer automatically to the Bartenura's explanation. It is also worth bearing in mind that throughout Shas, the Bartenura generally follows the explanations of Rashi and the rulings of the Rambam.


Mishnah 1

(a) Of the five people who are not eligible to separate Terumah, the Mishnah lists someone who does not own the crops and a Nochri .
1. If the former separated Terumah without being appointed, it is not valid.
2. But if he was appointed, the Terumah is valid since we learn from the words "Gam Atem" (in Korach) that one is permitted to appoint a Sheli'ach to separate Terumah.
(b) The remaining three are - Cheresh, Shoteh (who destroys whatever one gives him) and Katan (see Tiferes Yisrael).
(c) We learn most of them from the same Pasuk (in Terumah). We preclude ...
1. ... a Nochri (who separates Terumah from his own crops) from "Daber el Bnei Yisrael".
2. ... a Katan from "Me'es Kol Ish".
3. ... a Cheresh and Shoteh "Asher Yidvenu Libo".
4. ... Reuven who separates Terumah from Shimon's crops without permission "ve'Zos ha'Terumah Asher Tikchu me'Itam".
5. ... a Nochri who separates Terumah from the crops of a Yisrael "Kein Tarimu Gam Atem".
(d) We cannot learn a Katan from "Asher Yidvenu Libo" - because then a Katan who has reached the age of twelve (a Katan ha'Mufla le'Ish) and who knows in whose name he is separating Terumah, would not be precluded.
(e) In the event that any of the five did separate Terumah - their Terumah is invalid.

Mishnah 2

(a) The Tana rules that if a Cheresh who is able to speak separates Terumah - his Terumah is valid.
(b) The definition of the Cheresh' referred to in the previous Mishnah and throughout Shas is - one who can neither hear nor speak.
(c) This rule does have exceptions however - inasmuch as both in connection with Chagigah and Chalitzah, 'Cheresh' refers to one cannot hear but who is able to speak.

Mishnah 3

(a) Rebbi Yehudah holds that if a Katan whose pubic hair did not yet grow (see Tosfos Yom-Tov. According to others, Rebbi Yehudah is talking about a Gadol) separated Terumah - his Terumah is valid.
(b) Rebbi Yossi says agrees with Rebbi Yehudah - with regard to a Katan who has reached Onas Nedarim (twelve for a boy, eleven for a girl [equivalent to Mufla ha'Samuch le'Ish]).
(c) Rebbi Yehudah disagrees with the Tana Kama (in the opening Mishnah) in that he does not hold of the Derashah "me'es Kol Ish", 'Prat le'Katan' (Rebbi Yossi it seems, holds that a Mufla ha'Samuch le'Ish is included in "Ish" [see Tosfos Yom-Tov Mishnah 1. and Tosfos Rebbi Akiva Eiger there).
(d) The Halachah is like - Rebbi Yossi.

Mishnah 4

(a) We learn from the Pasuk in Korach "ka'Dagan min ha'Goren" (from what is complete on to what is complete) - that someone who has olives and oil or grapes and wine that are ready to Ma'aser (a term incorporating Terumah as well) - is not permitted to cover the oil when he Ma'asers the olives, or the wine when he Ma'asers the grapes.
(b) According to Beis Hillel, if the owner did so, his Terumah is invalid (see Tosfos Yom-Tov); Beis Shamai maintain - that what he Ma'asered on the olives or the grapes themselves is valid.

Mishnah 5

(a) The Tana presents a list of items from which one cannot separate Terumah. When he inserts Leket, Shikchah and Pe'ah (which are not Chayav Ma'asros anyway), he means - that the owner is not permitted to Ma'aser from the Leket, Shikchah and Pe'ah that are in his domain to cover a pile of Tevel that is waiting to be Ma'asered (see also Tosfos Yom-Tov).
(b) He also includes Hefker and Ma'aser Rishon whose Terumah has already been taken, in the list, which he learns (and presumably, the previous three as well) from the Pasuk in Re'eh "u'Va ha'Levi, ki Ein Lo Chelek ve'Nachalah Imach" - implying that one is obligated to Ma'aser produce which a Levi (or a Kohen) does not have as much right as himself (namely Hefker).
(c) The Tana does not contend with the Terumah Gedolah that the Levi is Chayav to separate from his Ma'aser - because he is speaking in a case where the ben Levi received his Ma'aser before when it was still in the pile (before it was taken to the granary for the Kohen to receive his Terumah).
(d) We learn from the Pasuk in Korach "ki es Ma'asar Bnei Yisrael Asher Yarimu la'Hashem Terumah" that a ben Levi is able to cover other Tevel with Terumas Ma'aser ...
(e) ... and we learn from the Pasuk there "es Mikdesho Mimenu" - that this is confined to where the Terumas Ma'aser has not been separated; but once it has, he may no longer do so.


(a) In its ruling 'and not from Ma'aser Sheni or Hekdesh which have been redeemed', the Mishnah specifically mentions 'Hekdesh she'Nifdeh' (not to preclude there where it was not redeemed [which is obviously forbidden], but) - to incorporate even if it was redeemed in the Halachah.
(b) The Tana must hold that Ma'aser Sheni - is the property of Hash-m.
(c) 'Hekdesh she'Nifdeh' speaks - where the owner declared it Hekdesh when it was still Tevel, and the treasurer of Hekdesh performed the Miru'ach (which normally renders Tevel Chayav Ma'asros) and then redeemed it.
(d) 've'Lo min ha'Chiyuv al ha'Petur, ve'Lo min ha'Petur al ha'Chayav'. ve'Lo min ha'Petur' means - not from crops that have not yet reached one third of their full growth.

(a) Based on the Pasuk in Korach (in connection with Terumah) ...
1. ... "va'Harimosem" (implying that the crops are detached), the Tana adds - 've'Lo min ha'Talush al ha'Mechubar' (see Tiferes Yisrael).
2. ... "Mimenu" (implying that the Ma'asros should be in the same state as the crops that are being Ma'asered) he adds 've'Lo min ha'Mechunar al ha'Talush'.
(b) When the Tana says 've'Lo ha'Chadash al ha'Yashan, ve'Lo min ha'Yashan al ha'Chadash' - he means that one is not permitted to Ma'aser from this year's crops on those of last year, and vice-versa (see Tiferes Yisrael) ...
(c) ... which he learns from the Pasuk in Re'ei - "ha'Yotzei ha'Sadeh Shanah Shanah".
(d) The final case in the Mishnah's list (based on the Pasuk in Bechukosai "ve'Chol Ma'asar ha'Aretz mi'Zera ha'Aretz") is - 've'Lo mi'Peiros ha'Aretz al Peiros Chutz la'Aretz ... ' (see Tiferes Yisrael and Mishnah Rishonah).

(a) With regard to separating Ma'asros from the fruit of Eretz Yisrael to cover fruit that grew in Syria (which is subject to Ma'asros like Eretz Yisrael) - Syria will have the same Din as Chutz la'Aretz (seeing as its Chiyuv is only mi'de'Rabbanan).
(b) In the latter cases, even though the Tana refers specifically to the Din of Ma'aser - we apply the same ruling to that of Terumah (see Tosfos Yom-Tov).

Mishnah 6

(a) Our Mishnah discusses five people who may not separate Terumah; a person who is dumb, drunk, naked - blind or a Ba'al Keri.
(b) The reason for the prohibition regarding ...
1. ... someone who is dumb or naked is - because he is unable to recite a Berachah.
2. ... drunk (to the extent that he is unable to speak before a king) or blind - because, based on the Pasuk in Korach "mi'Kol Chelbo, es Mikdesho Mimenu", the person who is Ma'asering must be able to pick the best of the crop.
3. ... a Ba'al Keri - because at that time, he was forbidden to recite a B'rachah (as we learned in a Mishnah in Berachos), thought this Takanah was eventually repealed.
(c) In the event that any of the above did Ma'aser - Bedi'eved his Ma'asros are valid (see Tosfos Yom-Tov and Tosfos Rebbi Akiva Eiger).

Mishnah 7

(a) The Tana learns from the Pasuk in Korach "ve'Nechshav Lachem Terumaschem" - that one must Ma'aser by assessment, and not by measuring, weighing or counting (see Meleches Shlomo).
(b) Despite the fact that this Pasuk is written in connection with Terumas Ma'aser, it must pertain to Terumah Gedolah (because Terumas Ma'aser, which has a fixed amount, must be measured ... [see Tosfos Yom-Tov about the order of priorities], since there is a fixed amount that one is obligated to give).
(c) The Tana - permits Ma'asering Tevel that has been measured, weighed or counted.

(a) The Mishnah rules that ...
1. ... filling a measuring basket or box with Ma'asros is forbidden.
2. ... filling half or a third of a measuring basket or box with Ma'asros - is permitted.
(b) Filling the basket or box is forbidden - because people may think that one is measuring the Ma'asros.
(c) And the Tana forbids half filling a measuring vessel of a Sa'ah which sometimes has a marking for half a Sa'ah - because he may to Ma'aser using a measuring vessel (see also Mishnah Rishonah).

Mishnah 8

(a) According to Torah law, one is permitted to Ma'aser oil on pounded olives or wine on trodden grapes.
(b) Chazal however, decreed - that someone who does so, must Ma'aser a second time once he completes the pounding or the treading (see Tosfos Yom-Tov).

(a) What the Tana says ...
1. ... 'ha'Rishonah Medama'as', he means - that should the first batch of Terumah fall into less than a hundred of Chulin, it becomes forbidden to a Zar (a Yisrael), and the owner must then sell it to a Kohen (see Tosfos Yom-Tov).
2. ... 've'Chayavin Alehah Chomesh', he means - that a Zar who eats it (be'Shogeg) is obligated to pay a Kohen for what he ate, plus a twenty-five per-cent fine.
(b) The equivalent Din with regard to the second batch of Terumah is - that he pays for what he ate, but without adding the fine (since min ha'Torah, it has a Din of Tevel [for Ma'aser and Terumah Gedolah], but not of Terumah), which still requires separation.
(c) In spite of this Mishnah, the Mishnah that we learned earlier regarding someone who Ma'asers olives to cover oil, rules 'Ein Terumaso Terumah' - because there, the owner causes the Kohen a loss (forcing him to produce his own oil or wine), which is not the case here.

Mishnah 9

(a) The Tana permits separating Ma'asros from oil on olives that have been pickled in wine or in vinegar. The fundamental difference between pickled olives and pounded ones (which the previous Mishnah forbade) is - that the former is considered Nigmerah Melachto, whereas the latter is not.
(b) 'Nigmerah Melachtan' means - that it has reached the stage when it is ready to be Ma'asered.
(c) The Mishnah also permits - separating wine on grapes that have been designated for making raisins.

(a) One is permitted to Ma'aser olives or oil on olives, or wine or grapes on grapes, that have been designated for eating.
(b) Consequently, says the Mishnah, even in the event that the owner then changes his mind and decides to use the olives to produce oil or the grapes to produce wine - it is not necessary to Ma'aser them again ...
(c) ... since the first separation was one hundred per cent legal.

Mishnah 10

(a) The Mishnah forbids the separating of Ma'asros from something which the Tana describes as 'Davar she'Nigmerah Melachto' on something which is not. A 'Davar she'Nigmerah Melachto' with regard to corn is - after the 'Miru'ach' (flattening of the pile that forms after winnowing) has been performed ...
(b) ... and the same ruling applies to the reverse case (where he separates a Davar she'Lo Nigmerah Melchachto on something which is Nigmerah Melachto').
(c) The Tana learns from the Pasuk in Korach "ka'Dagan min ha'Goren ve'cha'Melei'ah min ha'Yekev" - the Limud that we just discussed.
(d) If one contravened this ruling and Ma'asered from one on the other - the Terumah is valid Bedi'eved ...
(e) The one dual exception to this ruling is - someone who separated from olives on oil or from grapes on wine, where the Tana hold 'Ein Terumasan Terumah' (since he causes the Kohen a loss, as we learned above).

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