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Mishnah 1

(a) The Mishnah forbids the separation of Tahor crops on Tamei crops - for fear that, in order to avoid Tamei crops being Metamei the Tahor ones, one will come to separate the Ma'asros 'she'Lo min ha'Mukaf' (not next to each other (as per requirement [see Tiferes Yisrael]).
(b) In the event that one did - it is valid.
(c) The Mishnah adds - that the above stringency does not extend to a round cake of figs, part of which became Tamei (since they are already 'placed next to each by choice').
(d) The Tamei figs do not render the Tahor ones Tamei - because they have not combined sufficiently to turn them into one entity (and food that is not an Av ha'Tum'ah is not Metamei food [see Tiferes Yisrael]).
(e) The significance of the '*be'Emes* Amru ... ' is - it is Halachah (as if it was 'Halachah le'Moshe mi'Sinai').

(a) The Tana finds it necessary to repeat the current ruling with regard to ...
1. ... a tied bundle of vegetables - because the vegetables are not one entity to the extent the figs are (and we may have therefore thought that the decree still applies to them).
2. ... a loose pile of corn - because they are even more individual entities than the tied bundle of vegetables.
(b) The Tana Kama concludes - that two cakes of figs, two tied bundles of vegetables or two loose piles of corn are indeed included in the original prohibition.
(c) Rebbi Eliezer permits the separation of Tahor on Tamei (because in his opinion, the Chachamim did not agree with the Tana Kama's decree [see Mishnah Rishonah]).
(d) The Halachah is - like the Tana Kama.

Mishnah 2

(a) It is obviously forbidden to separate from Tamei on Tahor (since he causes the Kohen a loss [see Tiferes Yisrael]). In the event that one did - the Tana rules that be'Shogeg his Terumah is valid, whereas be'Meizid, it is not (see Tosfos Yom-Tov).
(b) In fact however, the Ma'asros will be invalid, even if it was Ma'asered be'Shogeg - if it became Tamei before it had a Sha'as ha'Kosher (i.e. before it reached the stage of Ma'asering).
(c) The Tana applies the same distinction to a ben Levi who has Ma'aser Tevel - which is Ma'aser Rishon that still contains Terumas Ma'aser, which he uses to cover other crops (she'Lo min ha'Mukaf [see also Tosfos Yom-Tov]).
(d) Rebbi Yehudah is stringent, even by Shogeg - if the owner was originally aware that it was Tamei or Tevel, and forgot.
(e) The Halachah is - like the Tana Kama.

Mishnah 3

(a) The Chachamim forbade the Toveling of Tamei vessels on Shabbos - because it resembles 'Mesaken' (repairing a vessel).
(b) The Mishnah rules that if someone did so be'Shogeg - he is permitted to use them, but not if he did so be'Meizid.

(a) The Tana draws the same distinction between someone who Ma'asers on Shabbos be'Shogeg and someone who does so be'Meizid. And as for someone who cooks on Shabbos ...
1. ... be'Shogeg - he may eat it on Motzei Shabbos ...
2. ... but not if he did so be'Meizid.
(b) We learn from the Pasuk in Ki Sisa "u'Shemartem es ha'Shabbos, ki Kodesh Hi" - "Hi Kodesh", 've'Ein Ma'asehah Kodesh'. Consequently, in the latter case, others are allowed to eat it (on Motzei Shabbos [see Tosfos Rebbi Akiva Eiger]).
(c) Finally, the Tana obligates someone who plants on Shabbos or in the Shemitah year be'Meizid, to uproot what he planted; be'Shogeg - they permitted the former, but forbade the latter ...
(d) ... because the people were widely suspected of breaking the Shemitah (but not Shabbos).

Mishnah 4

(a) It is not permitted to Ma'aser one species on another (see Meleches Shlomo for sources). There where one did, says the Mishnah, 'Ein Terumaso Terumah'.
(b) The Tana permits Ma'asering ...
1. ... one kind of wheat on another kind - because he considers them all to be the same species, and the same applies to Ma'asering ...
2. ... figs, pressed figs or trodden figs on one another.
(c) If there is a Kohen available, one separates the best-tasting fruit on the rest. If there is not, according to the Tana Kama, one separates - the one which keeps the longest.
(d) Consequently, someone who has fresh figs and pressed figs, and assuming that there are ...
1. ... Kohanim available - should separate from the fresh figs to cover the pressed ones as well.
2. ... no Kohanim around - should separate from the pressed ones.

(a) Based on the Pasuk in Korach "ba'Harimchem es Chelbo Mimenu", Rebbi Yehudah holds - that one must always separate from the superior quality fruit.
(b) The Halachah is - like the Tana Kama.

Mishnah 5

(a) According to the Tana Kama, someone who has, among a batch of onions to be Ma'asered, a complete small onion and half a big one - should separate from the whole one on the rest of the batch (see Tosfos Yom-Tov and Tosfos Anshei Shem).
(b) Rebbi Yehudah disagrees - on the basis of his previous ruling (always to separate from the best quality crops), which in this case, is the half of the large onion.

(a) Town-grown onions - tend to be better quality than those that are grown in the village, whereas the latter keep longer.
(b) Rebbi Yehudah therefore - requires separating Ma'asros from the town onion (and never from the village-grown ones).
(c) Rebbi Yehudah proves that town onions are superior - on the basis of the fact that the Politikim (the members of the royal household) eat them.

Mishnah 6

(a) 'Zeisei ...
1. ... Shemen - are olives that one designates for producing oil.
2. ... Kevesh' - are olives that one pickles for eating.
(b) The Mishnah ...
1. ... permits separating Zeisei Shemen on Zeisei Kevesh (see Tosfos Rebbi Akiva Eiger 22 and Bo'az), but ...
2. ... not Zeisei Kevesh on Zeisei Shemen - because they are inferior quality.
(c) By the same token - the Tana forbids separating boiled wine on wine that has not been boiled, buts permits vice-versa.

(a) The principle that governs the above ruling, which permits Ma'asering from good on bad is - that whenever two species are not Kil'ayim together, one is permitted to Ma'aser from the good on to the bad.
(b) One may not however, Ma'aser even from a good species on to a bad one - if the two species form Kil'ayim together.
(c) We learn from the Pasuk in Korach "Kol Chelev Yitzhar ve'Chol Chelev Tirosh" - that each species must be Ma'asered independently (see Tosfos Rebbi Akiva Eiger 24).

(a) With reference to two crops that are not subject to Kil'ayim, if one separated from the bad on to the good - the Terumah is valid.
(b) The only exception to this rule is Zonin (a kind of legumes that grows together with wheat) on wheat - since one tends to feed it to doves.
(c) The Tana Kama considers cucumbers and pickled cucumbers as belonging to one species. Rebbi Yehudah - does not.
(d) The Halachah is - like the Tana Kama.

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