Prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim

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Mishnah 1

(a) Rebbi Eliezer rules that a woman who is eating Terumah when she is informed that her husband has died or that he has divorced her (see TOS. Yom-Tov), is obligated to pay Keren ve'Chomesh. The Mishnah is talking about - a bas Yisrael who was married to a Kohen.
(b) And he extends this ruling to a case where the Eved of a Kohen is eating Terumah, when they inform him that his master has died (see Tiferes Yisrael) - or that he has sold him to a Yisrael, given him as a gift or set him free.
(c) The third case listed by the Mishnah list in this ruling is - where a case where the Kohen himself is eating Terumah, when he discovers that he is a ben Gerushah or a ben Chalutzah.
(d) In all these cases Rebbi Yehoshua exempts them from paying the Chomesh - because this took place on Erev Pesach that fell on a Shabbos, in which case the person eating it was an O'nes (since he needed to get rid of his Chametz quickly), and an O'nes is not Chayav Chomesh (see Tos. Yom-Tov and Tos. R. Akiva Eiger).

(a) The Mishnah also discusses a case where a Kohen is serving on the Mizbe'ach when he discovers that he is a ben Gerushah or a ben Chalutzah, and where - Rebbi Eliezer disqualifies all the Korbanos that he brought until that time retroactively, whereas Rebbi Yehoshua does not ...
(b) ... because the Torah writes in ve'Zos ha'Berachah "Barech Hash-m Cheilo ... " (implying that in certain cases, Hash-m will bless even the Chalalim of the tribe of Levi).
(c) Rebbi Yehoshua concedes however - that in similar circumstances, the Avodah of a Ba'al-Mum is Pasul retroactively.

Mishnah 2

(a) The Mishnah now discusses what the Din will be if the Terumah is still in the mouth of one of the above, when they are told the news. Rebbi Eliezer agrees with Rebbi Yehoshua that he must spit it out - in the last listed case (where the Kohen discovered that he was a ben Gerushah (since he did not begin eating it be'Heter).
(b) In the other cases, where he began eating be'Heter, he is permitted to swallow the Terumah.
(c) In a case where the person is still eating the Terumah when he is informed that either he or the Terumah just became Tamei - Rebbi Eliezer permits him to swallow it, whereas Rebbi Yehoshua requires him to spit it out.
(d) However, where they informed him that ...
1. ... already before he began eating, the Terumah or he was Tamei - even Rebbi Eliezer agrees that he must spit it out, and the same will apply if they informed him that ...
2. ... what he was eating was not Terumah but Ma'aser Rishon from which Terumas Ma'aser had not been taken, Ma'aser Sheni or Hekdesh that had not been redeemed, or if he tasted a bug (see Tosfos Yom-Tov) in his mouth, even as he was eating the Terumah.

Mishnah 3

(a) The Mishnah discusses a Zar who is walking towards the Chatzer eating Tevel grapes that he picked in the garden. The problem is - that although one is permitted to eat Arai (casually) in the field, once Tevel reaches the Chatzer, the Chatzer fixes a Chiyuv to Ma'aser, and one is not longer permitted to eat even Arai.
(b) Rebbi Eliezer says 'Yigmor', by which he means - that he may finish eating the grapes that he already picked and began eating, provided he goes back into the garden.
(c) Rebbi Yehoshua says - 'Lo Yigmor'.

(a) And the problem in a case where he is eating the same grapes casually on Erev Shabbos when Shabbos arrives is - that Shabbos (like the Chatzer) fixes for Ma'asros.
(b) When Rebbi Yehoshua says 'Yigmor', he means - that he is permitted to finish the grapes that he picked on Motzei Shabbos (but not on Shabbos).
(c) What does Rebbi Eliezer says - 'lo Yigmor'.

Mishnah 4

(a) Wine that has been left uncovered must be poured out - for fear that a snake drank from it ...
(b) ... even if the wine is Terumah wine, says the Mishnah, since it is dangerous, and may not be fed, even to an animal (Tiferes Yisrael).
(c) The two other liquids, besides wine, the Tana include in the list of those that must be poured out, are - water and milk.

(a) The Mishnah permits all other liquids. The Gemara though, adds to the list honey, Tzir (brine), Muris (fish-hash) ...
(b) ... and ground garlic.
(c) In order for any of these liquids to become forbidden, they must be uncovered - for the time it takes for a snake (which may be tiny) to emerge from its pit which might be directly underneath the handle of the Kli containing the beverage and drink from it (see Tiferes Yisrael).

Mishnah 5

(a) According to the Tana Kama, as long as there is not sufficient water for the snake's poison to dissipate, 'Mayim Megulim' is Asur. The moment there is, then the water is permitted (the actual amount is not specified).
(b) According to Rebbi Yossi, more than forty Sa'ah in the ground is not subject to the stringency of 'Mayim Megulim' (see Tos. Yom-Tov). 'Mayim Megulim in a receptacle, he says - is always Asur, irrespective of how much there is (see Tos. Yom-Tov).
(c) If a snake drinks from the water of a running fountain - the water does not become forbidden.
(d) One is forbidden to use Mayim Megulim to ...
1. ... feed one's animals (as we already explained) ...
2. ... wash one's hands, face and feet, or ...
3. ... to mix with cement.

Mishnah 6

(a) The Mishnah forbids eating figs, grapes, cucumbers, pumpkins, water-melons or picked-cucumbers which have a moist hole.
(b) What the Tana adds 'Afilu Hein Kikar', he means - that even if the fruit is huge (see Tiferes Yisrael), it is forbidden to eat even from the opposite side from where the hole is (since the moist is a sign that the poison has spread).
(c) It makes no difference whether the fruit is ...
1. ... large or small (see Tos. Yom-Tov) ...
2. ... detached or attached.
(d) If the hole is dry - one is permitted to eat from the opposite side of where the hole is.
(e) The Tana - prohibits eating an animal that has been bitten by a snake, because it is dangerous to do so.

Mishnah 7

(a) The Tana Kama forbids wine that has been left in an uncovered strainer, even though the vessel into which it subsequently drips is covered by the strainer - because he holds that some of the poison may have passed through the strainer (see Tiferes Yisrael) .
(b) Rebbi Nechemyah - permits it, because, he maintains, all the poison remains in the strainer.

Mishnah 8

(a) The Mishnah discusses a barrel containing Terumah that is Safek Tamei - where for example, there were two such barrels in the Reshus ha'Yachid, one of which was touched by a Sheretz, and it is not known which one.
(b) Rebbi Eliezer says that, assuming the barrel was ...
1. ... placed in a Hefker location - it should be moved to a guarded one.
2. ... open - it should be closed.
(c) He interprets the Pasuk in Korach "es Mishmeres Terumosai" - to incorporate two kinds of Terumah in the Din of guarding, Terumah Tehorah and Terumah Teluyah (i.e. Safek).

(a) Rebbi Yehoshua rules - that even if the barrel is currently placed in a guarded location, it should be moved to a Hefker one, and if it is closed, it should be opened (see Tos. Yom-Tov).
(b) He reads the "Terumosai" - in the singular ("Terumasi" without a 'Vav', the way it is written).
(c) According to Raban Gamliel - the barrel should be left as it is (as on the one hand, it Safek Terumah does not require guarding, whereas on the other, one is not permitted to do anything to it that will cause it to become Tamei.
(d) The Halachah is - like Raban Gamliel.

Mishnah 9

(a) The Mishnah discusses a case where a barrel of Terumah wine lying in the upper section of the wine-press, has broken, whilst in the vat, there is Chulin wine which is Tamei. The problem is - (assuming that wine in the vat is less than a hundredth of the wine in the barrel), that once the Terumah wine flows into the vat, it will make all the wine Meduma, so that the Kohen will not be able to use it even when he is Tamei.
(b) The Kohen retained Tamei wine in the first place - either to use when he is Tamei, or because he is not fussy about eating his Chulin be'Taharah.
(c) What do Rebbi Eliezer and Rebbi Yehoshua agree - that if one is able to save even one Revi'is of the Terumah wine in a Tahor, then one should (even though it means that the rest of the barrel will drip into the vat and render all the wine there Meduma.
(d) If he has no Tahor vessel into which to pour the Tahor wine, according to ...
1. ... Rebbi Eliezer - he must allow the wine to drip into the vat.
2. ... Rebbi Yehoshua - he is permitted to receive it in a Tamei vessel (in order to save the Chulin, seeing as the Terumah is going to become Tamei anyway).
(e) In spite of that, Rebbi Eliezer forbids it - because he is not permitted to be Metamei it with his hands.

Mishnah 10

(a) In a case where a barrel of Tahor Terumah oil is spilling, assuming that the Kohen does not have a Tahor vessel with which to collect oil that is spilling, Rebbi Eliezer and Rebbi Yehoshua argue like they did in the previous Mishnah - Rebbi Eliezer forbids catching any oil in Tamei vessels, whereas Rebbi Yehoshua permits it.
(b) The Kohen is not even permitted to catch some of the oil in his hands says the Tiferes Yisrael - because Stam Yadayim are Sheniyos le'Tum'ah, and would render the oil Terumah a Shelishi.
(c) The Tana does not present the case of oil in the oil-press (like it did with the barrel of wine) - because even if the oil would drip into the Tamei oil in the vat, the Kohen would be permitted to use the oil as fuel (in which case even Rebbi Yehoshua would concede that catching it in a Tamei vessel would be forbidden (see Tosfos Yom-Tov).

Mishnah 11

(a) When Rebbi Yehoshua says that on neither of the two cases is one warned against being Metamei it, only against eating it, he is referring to the wine that became Safek Tum'ah and on the oil that is going to waste.
(b) In defining the Isur of 'bal Tetamei', the Mishnah cites a case where a Nochri threatens a traveling Kohen that he will render Tamei all his Terumah loaves, unless he hands him one. According to Rebbi Eliezer - he is forbidden to give him one ...
(c) ... Rebbi Yehoshua - instructs him to place one on the rock for the Nochri to take.
(d) The Isur of 'bal Tetamei' that Rebbi Yehoshua is defining is - the prevention of all the loaves becoming Tamei, which the Kohen does by placing the one loaf on the rock (but no more).

Mishnah 12

(a) In similar vein, the Tana discusses a case where Nochrim demand that one hands them any one of a number of women (see Tiferes Yisrael), otherwise they will defile them all. Rebbi Eliezer and Rebbi Yehoshua agree - that they are forbidden to hand over one of the women (see Tiferes Yisrael).
(b) Rebbi Yehoshua concede to Rebbi Eliezer in this case - because of the principle 'Ein Dochin Nefesh Mipnei Nefesh (One may not push away one person in favor of another [and the same will therefore apply to where they demand any one person to kill, or they will kill the entire group])'.

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