Prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim

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Mishnah 1

(a) The Mishnah forbids a Kohen to put a dried fig of Terumah into fish-fat - because it spoils it (since it is the way to squeeze out a (partially) dried fig into fish fat and then to throw it away (see Tiferes Yisrael).
(b) He is nevertheless permitted to add Terumah wine to it - because it was the done thing to add wine to sweeten less fatty fish-fat in order to sweeten it.
(c) We might otherwise have thought that his intention is to merely remove the scum from it, in which case it would have been forbidden.

(a) The Mishnah says that a Kohen is forbidden to use spices of Chulin in the manufacture of ...
1. ... Terumah oil, but that he is permitted to use it in the manufacture of ...
2. ... Yeinumlin (honey-wine) ...
(b) ... because whereas in the former case - either the spices absorb the oil, which then goes to waste, or because spiced oil is unfit to drink, whereas the honey and the pepper that is added to the Yeinumlin, only serve to render it tastier.
(c) The Tana Kama forbids a Kohen to boil Terumah wine - because boiling diminishes it (or because less people tend to drink it that way); whereas Rebbi Yehudah permits it - because it improves the quality of the wine (see Tos. Yom-Tov), inasmuch as it makes it longer lasting.

Mishnah 2

(a) The Mishnah now discusses date-honey, apple-juice and winter-grapes, of Terumah, which all fall under the category of - fruit-juice.
(b) According to Rebbi Eliezer, a Zar who eats them be'Shogeg is Chayav to pay the Chomesh - whereas Rebbi Yehoshua exempts him from paying Keren.
(c) This does not mean that Rebbi Yehoshua permits a Zar to eat them - in fact, he only exempts him the Chomesh, but not from the Keren.
(d) The two beverages over which they do not argue are - wine and olive oil (which, even Rebbi Yehoshua concedes, is considered a fruit, and not just a fruit-juice).
(e) The Halachah is - like the Tana Kama.

(a) Rebbi Eliezer also rules - that fruit-juices are - subject to Tum'ah, just like wine and olive oil.
(b) Rebbi Yehoshua comments on this that, when the Chachamim listed seven liquids that receive Tum'ah, are Metamei others and that render food Muchshar Lekabel Tum'ah, they were not just listing a cross-section of liquids (incorporating others that they did not list), but were presenting a comprehensive list (precluding fruit-juices).
(c) Besides wine and olive-oil, the list of liquids comprises - water, dew, bee's honey, milk and blood.
(d) The ramifications of Rebbi Yehoshua's statement are - that any liquids or beverages besides the seven listed ones are not subject to Tum'ah.

Mishnah 3

(a) The Mishnah forbids making honey from dates of Terumah, cider from apples of Terumah and vinegar from winter-grapes - because turning fruit into a fruit-juice constitutes downgrading it.
(b) Besides Terumah - this ruling also pertains to Ma'aser Sheni (which also has a Din Kedushah).
(c) It is permitted however - with regard to manufacturing wine out grapes and oil out of olives ...
(d) ... because the Torah in Korach specifically writes (in connection with Terumah) "Kol Chelev Yitzhar ve'Chol Chelev Tirosh.

(a) The Tana that the wine and olive-oil manufactured from ...
1. ... Orlah (as opposed to other Orlah beverages), is not subject to Malkos (see Tiferes Yisrael).
2. ... Bikurim is included in the Mitzvah of Bikurim.
(b) We know that ...
1. ... one may not bring fruit-juice as Bikurim from the Pasuk in Ki Savo (in connection with the Parshah of Mikra Bikurim) "Hinei Heiveisi es Reishis Pri ha'Adamah" ("Pri" ... 've'Lo Mashkeh').
2. ... wine and olive oil are included - because we learn it from Terumah.
(c) Finally, the Mishnah rules that whereas wine and olive-oil ...
1. ... are subject to Tum'ah, other fruit-juices are not, and likewise ...
2. ... they are the only two that go on the Mizbe'ach (oil with the Menachos and wine in the form of Nesachim).

Mishnah 4

(a) The Mishnah - forbids the stalks of figs, dried figs, K'lisin (a kind of fig [or pea]) and carobs of Terumah to Zarim ...
(b) ... because a. unlike the stalks of other fruit, one tends to eat them, and b. because they are slightly sunken inside the fruit, one sometimes pulls them out with some of the fruit attached (see Mishnah Rishonah and Tos. Yom-Tov).

Mishnah 5

(a) The Mishnah rules regarding the pits of Terumah fruit that a Zar is ...
1. ... forbidden to eat them - if the Kohen puts them away to eat (because they are soft and edible, like apple, quince and pear pits, or suckable, like date pits.
2. ... permitted to eat them, even if the Kohen retained them in order to eat - if they are hard and inedible.
(b) The Tana issues the same ruling with regard to - the bones of Kodshim ...
(c) ... by which he says - as long as one puts them away because they are fit to eat (such as grizzle), they are subject to Nosar (see Meleches Shlomo).

(a) The Tana - permits Mursan (the coarse bran of wheat, which contains no flour) and Subin (the finer bran of wheat, which is wet, and to which flour sticks).
(b) Even the latter permitted however - if the bran is old.
(c) Wheat which is - thirty days old is considered new in this regard.

(a) When the Tana says that one behaves with Terumah bran as one would with that of Chulin, he means - that, after sorting out the Mursan and the Subin, one is permitted to throw away what is left just as he would if it was Chulin (because it is not fit to eat anyway).
(b) Out of a Sa'ah of flour - one obtains as little as one or two Kabin of So'les (good quality flour) ...
(c) In the case of Terumah - he is not permitted to throw away what is left, since it is fit to eat.

Mishnah 6 & 7

(a) The Mishnah permits the owner of a storehouse of Terumah that he has cleared out - to sweep as he would if it was Chulin ...
(b) ... and not to the last grain, because it is Terumah (see Tiferes Yisrael note 41).
(c) The reason for this latter ruling is - because he is not deliberately trying to be Mevatel The Terumah (Tos. Yom-Tov).
(d) And in the same vein, the Tana does not obligate a Kohen whose barrel of Terumah oil spilt - to sop it up with his fist.

Mishnah 8

(a) Someone who is emptying Terumah oil or wine from one barrel to another, may start pouring in Chulin - when, after it is empty, three more drops have dripped out (see Tos. Yom-Tov).
(b) Any drops that drip from the barrel, if, after having performed the previous process, one turns it on its side, are nevertheless Terumah (see Tos. Yom-Tov).
(c) The minimum Shi'ur of Tamei Terumas Ma'aser wine or oil of Demai that one is obligated to 'bring' to the Kohen (see Tos. Yom-Tov and Tiferes Yisrael) is - an eighth of an eighth of a Log (also known as a Kurtuv [see Tiferes Yisrael]) Less than that, he is permitted to destroy.
(d) If it was either Vaday (and not Demai), or Tahor Demai (and not Tamei) - he would be Chayav to give him even a Kolshehu.

Mishnah 9

(a) A Kohen - is not permitted to feed his animals regular Terumah (because it is forbidden to feed animals food that is fit for a human.
(b) The Tana nevertheless permits him to feed them Karshinei Terumah (vetch, or horse-bean) - because it is basically animal food.
(c) It must nevertheless be fit for human consumption - otherwise, it would not be subject to Terumos and Ma'asros.

(a) The Mishnah - permits a Yisrael who hires a cow from a Kohen to feed it Karshinei Terumah (since it remains the Kohen's property [even though the Yisrael is obligated to feed it]).
(b) The Yisrael is permitted to use Terumah for that purpose (and it is not considered theft) - because if e wanted, he could have given the Karshinim to the Kohen directly, and now that he did not, we know that the Kohen will be only too pleased if he now feeds his animal with it instead.
(c) We learn that a Kohen who hired a cow from a Yisrael may not feed it Terumah from the Pasuk "ve'Kohen ki Yikneh Nefesh Kinyan Kaspo" - by extrapolating from it that he is not permitted to feed any soul (even that if an animal) that he has not acquired.

(a) The Mishnah now discusses the Din of 'ha'Sham Parah', which means - that Reuven receives a cow from Shimon that has just been assessed, to fatten. And after a given time, it is assessed again, at which point it is sold, and Reuven and Shimon divide the difference.
(b) The Tana ...
1. ... forbids a Yisrael who is 'Sham Parah' from a Kohen to feed it Terumah, but permits ...
2. ... a Kohen who is 'Sham Parah' from a Yisrael to do so ...
(c) ... because as opposed to the hirer - the person who is Sham acquires the animal.

Mishnah 10

(a) The Mishnah permits burning Shemen Sereifah - Terumah oil that because Tamei and that needs to be burned to light up Shuls, Batei Medrash and dark alleyways.
(b) One may one use it to illuminate the room for a sick person - provided there is a Kohen present who will benefit from it ...
(c) ... because of the S'vara 'Ner le'Echad, Ner le'Me'ah (a lamp for one is a lamp for a hundred)'.
(d) The Mishnah - permits a Yisrael to use Terumah-oil to illuminate a room for his daughter who married a Kohen.

(a) Rebbi Yehudah ...
1. ... forbids using Terumah-oil to illuminate the house of a mourner (even if there is a Kohen there) - because he is afraid that someone will carry the lamp to a room where there is no Kohen.
2. ... nevertheless permits using Terumah-oil to illuminate the house where a wedding-feast is taking place - because, since everyone is wearing his best clothes, he assumes that nobody will pick up the lamp and transfer it to another room.
(b) Rebbi Meir ...
1. ... forbids using Terumah-oil to illuminate the house where a wedding-feast is taking place (even if there is a Kohen there) - because he is afraid that, seeing as everyone there is in a good mood, someone is likely to move the lamp to another, but he ...
2. ... permits using Terumah-oil to illuminate the house of a mourner - because people who are feeling dejected are less likely to do so.
(c) Rebbi Meir adopts the Chumra of both opinions. Rebbi Shimon - adopts both leniencies ...
(d) And that is how we rule (see Tiferes Yisrael and Tos. Yom-Tov).

***** Hadran Alach 'Ein Nosnin', ve'Salik Maseches Terumos *****

On to Ma'asros

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